CPPB Curricula, Providers, Trainers and Courses

CURRICULA LIST

Introduction

Potentially encompassed in a comprehensive preparation curriculum for practitioners operating on programmes and projects in the peacebuilding field, the sub-curriculum on Designing Peacebuilding Programmes (DPP) is a core-competencies course that prepares practitioners to work jointly with the programming and project cycle logic and conflict awareness and sensitivity logic.

There is a gap between the scale of people’s efforts and investment, the huge number of programmes, activities and organisations in the field, and the impact this is all having on peacebuilding and sustainable post-war recovery and stabilisation. This programme has been designed to close that gap. It is practical and operational, designed for policy makers, donors and practitioners, and those dealing with the daily challenges of peacebuilding, development and recovery in areas affected by war and violence.

It draws from across the entire breadth of operational experience, lessons learned and practical methodologies – doing so in a way that has been designed to enable agencies and organisations to go in-depth into their work and how they are doing it, coming out with better designs, better approaches, and with real effects.

At the completion of the Designing Peacebuilding Programmes Course the participants will:

  • complete their understanding of the “peacebuilding palette” (a full spectrum of possible peace projects and initiatives) and their respective effectiveness
  • be informed and understand a possible model for a full cycle design, including peacebuilding-specific tools and methods
  • be able to define and understand the quality criteria of a solid, conflict-sensitive design of a peace programme
  • be able to identify and understand the role of different stakeholders not only in the implementation but also in the design of peacebuilding mission
  • envision be able to apply with flexibility and to customize some of the tools to concrete cases of their interests and better integrate appropriate and effective design, planning, development, and monitoring and evaluation tools into the work of their organisation/agency
  • have achieved an understanding on the main challenges related to design and implementation of peace programme design and ways on how to deal with these challenges.
  • refine their skills to work in diverse teams for planning and designing a peacebuilding programme
  • demonstrate an interest in engaging in improved programme design in the peacebuilding field.

A number of reasons make this particular sub-curriculum relevant for peacebuilding and prevention missions, the main ones being: 1) need for improved coherence of programming framework among different stakeholders, 2) need for the use of appropriate of peace- and conflict specific planning tools, and 3) need to realize the continuous and systemic nature of programme (re) design process and the key moments in a mission life-time when such a design process should happen as well as the key actors that should be involved in the design process.

  1. need for improved coherence of programming framework among different stakeholders. Findings of a number of peacekeeping, humanitarian and peacebuilding evaluation reports and related research have indicated the need for the United Nations to focus efforts at improving ability to undertake meaningful, coherent, coordinated and sustainable peacekeeping operations. The Brahimi report for example indicated that, a “contemporary peace operations, that combine a wide range of interrelated civilian and military activities (interposition; disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration (DDR); rule of law; institutional building; humanitarian aid; economic reconstruction. Introduction to IMPP UN Peacekeeping makes an integrated and coordinated approach a condition of coherence and success”. Also, a Joint Utstein Study of peacebuilding analysis of 336 peacebuilding projects implemented by Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Norway over a decade identified lack of coherence at the strategic level in what it terms as ‘strategic deficit’, as the most significant obstacle to sustainable peacebuilding
  2. need for the use of appropriate of peace- and conflict specific planning tools While mission briefings and often project cycle management represents a component of many mission planning courses, what is rare and needed is the embedding of concrete peace- and conflict-specific tools in the programming cycle as well as the emphasis in missions not only on the knowledge (mission brief, mission details) but also the skills and at the attitudes to be consolidated from the moment of mission planning and design, through the re-design during the implementation. Examples of this could include the capacity of conducting comprehensive stakeholder analyses and the attitude/principle of valuing participation from a large number of stakeholders in the mission (re-) design process.
  3. need to realize the continuous and systemic nature of programme (re) design process and the key moments in a mission life-time when such a design process should happen as well as the key actors that should be involved in the design process. Particularly relevant for missions being implemented in conflict settings where the context is changing frequently and where the decision making on re-alignment needs to be taken several times, the DPP offers the opportunity to train on understanding the systemic, cyclical nature of design of the mission and also to train on the preparedness to undertake several re-design processes during a mission life-cycle.

The programme is relevant mostly in the mission start-up as well as during the implementation of the mission, if the mission mandate includes the flexibility of re-design or renewal of mission planning/ part of the mission activities.

The curriculum could be delivered to multi-stakeholder groups and be relevant to a wide variety of missions, with the emphasis on civilian peacebuilding missions and mixed civil-military mission programming and coordination in a certain setting.

  • UN, OSCE, EU, Commonwealth, OAS, AU and ASEAN staff, Deployable civilian experts and field staff of international and national organisations and agencies working in areas affected by violent conflict and war, or in post-war violence-situations
  • Senior to mid-level staff and executive officers in national and international aid and development organisations and organisations dealing with peacebuilding, post-war stabilisation and recovery, or working in areas affected by armed conflict
  • Staff of international and national NGOs working in the fields of development, human rights, stabilization and recovery, conflict resolution, confidence and security building measures, democratisation, and social empowerment, gender and peacebuilding, and reconciliation and healing
  • National and local level politicians in countries affected by war and conflict or with portfolios responsible for issues dealing with peacebuilding, conflict transformation, violence prevention, post-war stabilisation and recovery, reconciliation and healing
  • Mediation parties including government leadership and conflict parties and their representatives involved in mediation and negotiation processes
  • Mediators and those involved in facilitating and supporting formal and information mediation processes, including back channel negotiations and quiet diplomacy
  • Donor agencies, governmental and non-governmental organisations involved in funding, assisting, and capacity building/support operations for peacebuilding, conflict transformation, violence prevention and post-war stabilisation and recovery programmes
  • Members of working groups, expert groups and negotiation teams involved in mediation and peace processes, and confidence building working groups

Training institutions /trainers who have received expressions of interests or indications of needs to improve the competencies around planning and conflict-sensitive interventions could benefit from using such a sub-curricula.

Training institutions / trainers engaged as consultants or contractors for strategic planning processes around CPPB missions and operations as well as training institutions /trainers/ policy institutions who want to follow a curricula to determine a country strategy for a specific type of mission are to find the in DPP curriculum a valuable capacity building framework.

Practitioners who have a specific mandate and terms of reference around developing strategic planning processes, programming or project design in the field of conflict prevention and peacebuilding operations can directly benefit for this curricula as a design laboratory that leads them to having a concrete and solid plan for their direct tasks. Practitioners who have the task of monitoring and evaluating CPPB projects/programmes could also benefit from this curriculum.

Development Organisations or Agencies could use the DPP curriculum to train their programming staff as well as a reference framework for the evaluation of existing conflict prevention and peacebuilding programmes.

    I. PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT

  • Knowledge
    • Know the different phases of a project cycle
    • Know the steps that take to design a project
    • Understand the cyclical, strategic and systemic nature of designing a peacebuilding project
  • Skills
    • Be able to analyse the design process and derive a list of DO’s and DON’T for the specific context (conflict issue and stakeholders) of the project designed
    • Apply the peacebuilding strategic planning model of DPP to different conflict situations Attitudes:
    • Demonstrate a real commitment and interest in engaging on a solid design process
    • Refine a proactive attitude towards initiating collaborative planning processes
  • II. CONFLICT SENSITIVITY and DO NO HARM

  • Knowledge
    • Know and understand the concepts of ‘conflict sensitivity’ and the concept, approach and programme planning steps of DO NO HARM
  • Skills
    • Be able to identify indicators for conflict sensitivity with respect to: project design, programme designing process ; Be able to identify and create risk maps and risk mitigation strategies
  • Attitudes
    • Demonstrate interest and an integration of the different sensitivities throughout the planning process during the course

    III. CONFLICT ANALYSIS

  • Knowledge
    • Understand the difference between mapping, analysis and assessment; Know the main elements and core questions of a conflict assessment process
  • Skills
    • Be able to apply a series of conflict analysis tools (as a minimum: actor map, conflict tree, sources and pillars, ABC/DSC triangles, conflict timeline)
  • Attitudes
    • Appreciate the value of a participatory and multi-partial conflict analysis

    IV. PEACEBUILDING STRATEGY/ CHOICES

  • Knowledge
    • Know the main elements and core questions of the deciding the strategic path of the CPPB project/programme
  • Skills
    • Know the main elements and core questions of the deciding the strategic path of the CPPB project/programme
  • Attitudes
    • Demonstrate appreciation about having solid arguments and a strong (backed by data and experiences) rationale behind choices made in a project

    V. MONITORING AND EVALUATION

  • Knowledge
    • Know the main elements and core questions of creating a MEAL/ME/MELI plan for a project/programme; Understand the concept and main elements of conflict sensitive monitoring and evaluation; Know the concepts of Peace Writ Large and Peace Writ Little
  • Skills
    • Be able to create a MEAL plan, Be able to formulate results and impact indicators as well as quality criteria for: a) the design of a project b)the content of a project c) the process of design of a project
  • Attitudes
    • Commitment especially to the accountability and learning as core components of the ME process, and to conflict sensitivity and do no harm in the evaluation process

    VI. MONITORING AND EVALUATION

  • Knowledge
    • Know basic concepts of dialogue, feedback, active listening, consensus, confidentiality and collaborative leadership
  • Skills
    • Group facilitation and dialogue, problem solving, encouraging participation and input from all members of the group; Empathy
  • Attitudes
    • Value group work and diversity of perspectives; Appreciate the input coming from different conflict perspectives and engage with openness in dialogues on controversial themes

This curricula links to:

  • Introduction to CPPB *
  • CONFLICT ANALYSIS / ASSESSMENT *
  • STRATEGIC PLANNING/ MISSION PLANNING
  • CONFLICT SENSITIVITY *
  • PCIA *
  • Monitoring/Evaluation/Accountability and Learning in Peace Operations *

* (these courses can be considered pre-requisites when the DPP is offered at Intermediate/Advanced or Expert Level)

As the same content and knowledge base can be delivered in different formats depending on the time/resource availability, urgency of programming process or motivation of running a solid design process, the DPP can be offered as DPP 1 (one-time, on-site training) or DPP2 (a blended learning process including on-line and on-site phases). The DPP1 curricula is designed for a one-time on-site training.

At the same time, where mission/ participants time allocation allow it could be well delivered in a blended learning setting, named DPP2, including a) an on-line phase including modules on introductions and contextualization, theoretical base and case studies; b) an on-site phase of design and programming co-creation; c) a field-phase where the design in implemented and tested and d) an on-site or an on-life evaluation of design and practitioners sharing of learning and refining the planning model phase;

In either form, the Designing Peacebuilding Programmes curricula includes several different curricular modules described below:

Introductory Session: Introduction to the participant’s context and the learning and practice process
  • Module 1 : Peacebuilding Programming and Design: State of the Field, Existing Models, Quality Criteria
  • Module 2: The DPP model and possible tools
  • Module 3: Peace and Conflict Assessment
  • Module 4: Visioning
  • Module 5: Strategic Programming Choices: Theory of Change, Scenario Planning
  • Module 6: Detailing own Peacebuilding Palette: Action/Activity Planning and Timing, Risk Identification and Mitigation Strategies and resource Allocation
  • Module 7: Monitoring, Evaluation and Realignment
  • Module 8: Improving Coherence & Strategic Frameworks of CPPB projects/programmes and Evaluating the Design Process.

The methods used to deliver these modules include:

  • Interactive presentations; End-of-the-day briefing notes
  • Case studies a) presented by the trainer b) chosen by participants and used as examples in the group work, where based on those respective case studies participants are designing own peacebuilding projects/programmes
  • Working Groups
  • Expert Forum
  • Reflection rounds and journaling
  • Icebreakers and Energisers connected with the theme and topic of each module and implemented in selected sessions throughout the curriculum

While the training curricula can be adapted to different levels of experience and expertise, it is most appropriate at Intermediate, Advanced and Expert level of practice with project management and peace and conflict work. Elements of basic project design (e.g. PCM, PCIA), definitions of peace, conflict and conflict sensitivity are prerequisites for such a course. The timing of the modules can be adjusted to include such concepts thus depending on the level of previous expertise of participants the duration of implementation of such curricula can be increased with the missing modules.

Beginner / Entry

While the relevance at beginner/entry level is low, at this point DPP curricula can introduce the core elements of strategic and systemic design, can introduce the DPP model together basic elements of PCM (Project Cycle Management) and a few tools of peace and conflict work to be applied. At the beginner/entry level, rather than working with participants’ cases more effective might be introducing case studies of applying the DPP model to concrete situations and having participants work on very detailed-defined case studies.

Intermediate / Advanced

The curriculum is mostly designed for a core / majority group of training participants who find themselves at intermediate/advanced level. This entails having prerequisites of previous knowledge in the areas of peace and conflict fundamentals (knowing and being able to functionally work with different definitions of peace and conflict, being able to define and formulate a conflict/issue, conflict actor maps, PCM, problem trees, GANTT charts, having a basic awareness of conflict sensitivity and PCIA etc). At this level the focus would be on the awareness of the different planning models and then, refining KSA related to concrete tools of analysis, vision setting, strategy and MEAL, adding new, more complex tools to participants’ peacebuilding toolbox (e.g. Integrated conflict tree and DSC triangle) and working on the skills to balance limited resources and time to having a strategic and systemic design process.

Expert / Specialisation

At this level the training would focus mostly on the customized work of practitioners and experts to design own projects and programmes that would be immediately implemented in the field. At this level the curricula’s dominant approach is a training laboratory and expert exchange forum, aiming to derive the best strategic and detailed choices that one could take in conceptualizing a peacebuilding intervention.

Peace and Conflict Sensitivity is directly included in the curriculum, linking the concept of conflict sensitivity, the project planning methodology of DNH to the DPP model as well as through suggesting of conflict sensitivity tools and assessment criteria at each of the different steps of the DPP process. Peace and Conflict Sensitivity is also one of the CORE QUALITY CRITERIA listed for the design of a CPPB project/programme.

Local Ownership is also strongly emphasized in this curricula through: a) the inclusion of PARTICIPATION as one of the CORE QUALITY CRITERIA listed for the design of a CPPB project/programme. Local ownership is also reflected in this curricula through the choice of relevant case-studies and examples, which are, at the time of each course chosen to fit participants’ needs and realities.

For the implementation of the DPP curriculum a mixed-team, mixed-methods approach is the one that provides sufficient diversity and complexity throughout a 5-days to several months process.

Implemented within a mixed team, of practitioners the programme includes methods such as: interactive presentations, case studies and significant amounts of group work on participants’ own cases. The training programme is also complemented by reflection sessions as well as personal development sessions where participants are guided by a coach in their own professional choices often related to the design of the respective programmes. When implemented in the DPP2 model the training includes practical implementation in the field of the design and learning-by-doing approach, with supervision and coaching.

The main innovative aspect consists in the participatory and hands-on approach to training, where participants are owners of the process and work on concrete projects, with the other colleagues being peer advisors. Also the DPP 2 model, with a sequenced approach to training also represents an innovative approach to implementing a training programme. Aside from that a series of methods such as elements of forum theatre, elements of self-care and reflection are introduced and reflect also front of the field tendencies in adult learning and specifically peacebuilding adult learning.

The DPP approach to developing competencies includes a process-focus including the phases of assessment, theoretical reflection and modelling and learning from practice, application for concrete cases, real and realistic design and implementation and evaluation and reflective learning. The DPP curricula proposed would include a blended capacity building approach. As designed at upper-intermediate levels for practitioners it would involve an advanced online assessment and sharing of the mission profile and peace and conflict contexts as well as a guidance/coaching/support phase in the 6- 12 months following which would contain tailored support from trainers/ peers on the implementation of the designed elements into the concrete project/programme. If implemented in the DPP2 version, the approach would even more be rather of consultancy and mentoring nature rather than a classic / academic learning experience.

Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Course Title Link to Course Outline (if available) Link to Relevant Publications / Resources / Handbooks / Toolkits used in the course (if available)
PATRIR Designing Peacebuilding Programmes: Improving the Quality, Impact and Effectiveness of Peacebuilding and Peace Support patrir.ro -
Title Organisation / Institution Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
Designing for Results Search for Common Ground 2006 www.sfcg.org
Strategic Peacebuilding: State of the Field Lisa Schirch 2008 www.scribd.com
Confronting War: Critical Lessons for Peace Practitioners Mary B Anderson, Lara Olson 2003 cdacollaborative.org
The Do No Harm Handbook (The Framework for Analysing the Impact of Assistance on Conflict) CDA (Local Capacity For Peace Project) 2004 www.globalprotectioncluster.org
Conflict Assessment and Peacebuilding Planning: Toward a Participatory Approach to Human Security Lisa Schirch 2013 Kumarian Press, Boulder, CO, USA
Towards a Strategic Framework for Peacebuilding: Getting Their Act Together Overview report of the Joint Utstein Study of Peacebuilding g Dan Smith 2004 www.regjeringen.no
Civil Society and Peacebuilding Thania Paffenholz 2009 www.sfcg.org

The DPP programme is normally a multi-stakeholder programme, yet some considerations as to when it is implemented for specific stakeholders are presented below:

Civilian / NGO

When implemented in Civilian NGO contexts the DPP programme should pay particular attention to models such as: Civil Society Role in Peacebuilding and Effectiveness of Civil Society actions, as well as to the ways of engagement, from a civil society point of view across tracks. Also at civilian, NGO level it is important to mark and discuss the coherence and strategic engagement of civilian actors, as the lack of coordination at the least without mentioning collaboration has been identified as one of the major gaps that are to be covered. The mapping of parallel initiatives as well as doing a PEACE and CONFLICT profile of the situation are activities that are to be implemented and emphasized.

EEAS / Diplomats / Civil Servants

When implemented at the diplomatic level, the DPP programme should involve an emphasis on policy coherence in the sense of transposing into the projects and programmes designed of principles that are embedded into local, national and international policies (such as Country Strategies, Paris Declaration, Peace Agreements etc). At this level it is important also to illustrate and reflect concrete mechanisms of local ownership and as in the previous cases the realistic benefit of cross-track programming and implementation of programmes.

Military / Armed Forces and Police

When customised for Military, Armed Forces and Police the DPP Programme includes at the beginning a clarification in terms of terminology of peacebuilding- peacekeeping, as these are terms used interchangeably often in these spheres as well as an emphasis on the complexity of peacebuilding intervention and the emphasis on scenarios and preparedness to take own decisions which are not always specified in a previously-written scenario. The aspect of Do No Harm and self-awareness and self-care are also innovative aspects that can be included in a DPP-programme adapted for these specific stakeholders.

External documents

Here you can download a curriculum page in PDF format.

Introduction

This sub-curricula is facilitating one week long Operational-level Planning course, focusing on the two key planning concepts – Centre of Gravity and Operational Design. Operational-level planning is a military planning with the purpose to design major operations and campaigns. Planning of military operations is very complex exercise, particularly, when plans have to address Peace Building and Conflict Prevention missions. These types of Crisis Response Operations are characterized by complexity of the operational environment, which is composed of many layers of interrelated political, military, economic, social, information and infrastructure factors. The relations between causes and effects very seldom are clear thus complicating the understanding of the roots of the problem. Furthermore, desired conditions in such operations mostly can be achieved only through synchronized civil-military actions.

Regardless the scope and intensity of military operation, the key concepts applied during the operational-level planning include: Centre of Gravity (COG) analysis and Operational Design. Both concepts complement each other and offer a way for the planners to give a structure to complex problem, so that it is possible to identify actions leading to the desired conditions. Capability to apply those concepts is one of the key competencies of every staff officer.

COG analysis and operational design are two concepts the rest of the operations planning and execution processes in Western military culture are based upon. COG analysis allows identifying the key attributes of the main actors involved in the crisis or conflict, whether operational design is used throughout the operation to communicate the envisioned role of the military, develop and adapt operational plans, synchronize actions and assess the progress of the operation. The overall aim of this sub-curriculum is to educate military planners to create solutions to the complex operational level problems by applying Centre of Gravity Analysis and Concept of Operational Design.

Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  • Explain NATO Crisis Management Process
  • Explain phases and processes of NATO operational-level planning process
  • Contribute to Comprehensive Preparation of Operational Environment
  • Explain the DO NO HARM Analytical Framework, its similarities, differences with NATO planning process
  • Apply Factor-Deduction-Conclusion construct of analysis of operational environment
  • Explain the overall purpose of the COG analysis
  • Understand the importance of solid CoG analysis in ensuring the achievement of desired effects
  • Explain the linkage between COG analysis and the process of assessment of the operational environment
  • Explain the theoretical background of Center of Gravity concept
  • Examine attributes of COG, including critical capabilities, critical requirements, and critical vulnerabilities
  • Describe the different methods of COG analysis
  • Apply Centre of Gravity concept for planning of full spectrum of military operations
  • Explain the purpose of the Operational Design
  • Understand how military operational design is connected with objectives of other stakeholders and actors of the operational environment, particularly, when designing operational design for peace building missions
  • Explain the relation between CoG, Operational Design, Mission Objectives and Impact on Peacebuilding, Humanitarian operations
  • List and describe the main components of the operational design, including: a) Operational Objectives b) Decisive Conditions c) Desired Effects d) Actions e) Lines of Operation f) Phases of Operation g) Decision points
  • Explain different methods for developing operational design
  • Develop operational design

Operational-level planning is conducted before deployment of the military contingent to the area of operations as well as during the execution of mission. Capability of military personnel to apply COG analysis and explore the concept of operational design is enabling application of military assets during full spectrum of military missions, including conventional military operations as well as crisis response operations, including Conflict Prevention, Peace-making, Peace Enforcement, Peacekeeping and Peace Building, counter regular activities and support to civil authorities.

The importance of the comprehensive mission planning is continuously highlighted by policy makers and practitioners.

The training is not specific to a type or phase of a mission, it could be used also in the context of mission assessment and evaluation.

This training is applicable for the military personnel as well as civil servants who might be involved into the planning and/or execution of multinational operations at operational or component level headquarters. This course is applicable for decision makers and staff officers and civil servants. If possible, training audience should be composed of representatives from military and civilian institutions and represent various backgrounds and experiences.

The content of the SC can be applied for pre-deployment training as well as during the mission in order to increase collective and individual operational-level planning performance. When delivered during the mission this SC should build upon pre-deployment training and be delivered under the approach of “adjusting”, “monitoring” “evaluating” and “learning”.

This type of course is necessary for everyone going to participate in the mission planning, particularly in the military, but also among the civilians.

Following key competencies are targeted by this course: K S A
Explain NATO Crisis Management Process x
Explain NATO Operational Level Planning Process x
Apply Factor-Deduction-Conclusion construct of analysis of operational environment x
Explain the overall purpose of the COG analysis x
Explain the linkage between COG analysis and the process of assessment of the operational environment x
Explain the theoretical background of Center of Gravity concept x
Examine attributes of COG, including critical capabilities, critical requirements, and critical vulnerabilities x
Describe the different methods of COG analysis x
Apply Centre of Gravity concept for planning of full spectrum of military operations x
Explain the purpose of the Operational Design x
Explain the relation between Operational Design and COG x
Describe and use the main components of the operational design, including:
  1. Operational Objectives
  2. Decisive Conditions
  3. Desired Effects
  4. Actions
  5. Lines of Operation
  6. Phases of Operation
  7. Decision points
x x
Explain different methods for developing operational design x
Develop operational design x
Explain the basic principles and methods of the operational assessment x
Assume responsibilities during the planning process x
Contribute to the team work x
Maintain non-judgmental and respectful attitude x
Recognize the benefits of diverse understanding of the problem/solution x
Maintain cultural awareness x x x
Describe here in detail the core competencies to be covered by this sub-curricula. Develop each as 1 paragraph or more. Put the ‘title’ /

This curricula is a supplementary to the courses introducing NATO operational level planning process. This course can be taken before or after attending operations planning courses for operational or strategic level planners conducted by NATO School Oberammergau, Finish Defense Forces International Center or by other national or international professional military institutions. Some links to such courses are provided later in this paper.

Day 1 and 2 NATO CRISIS MANAGEMENT PROCESS

The aim of the SC is to familiarize training audience with the NATO Crisis Management Process, phases and key concepts of the Operational Level Planning, DO NO HARM analytical framework, Comprehensive Preparation of Operational Environment and process and factor – conclusion - deduction construct of analysis.

Teaching methods: lecture, small group activity (max 10 persons).

Small group assignment

Within given scenario as a member of planning team conduct Comprehensive Preparation of Operational Environment and present key findings. Apply factor-deduction-conclusion construct of analysis. Present your findings on Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure and Information domains.

Day 3 and 4: COG ANALYSIS

The aim of the teaching activity is to introduce the audience with the overall purpose of the Center of Gravity (COG) analysis by explaining linkage of the COG concept with other operational planning and management processes and concepts, particularly, analysis of the operational environment and operational design. Introduce the training audience with the attributes of COG, including critical capabilities, critical requirements, and critical vulnerabilities. Explain the theoretical background of Center of Gravity concept, starting with the origins of the concept in Clausewitz’s writings, and covering the various interpretations and methods applied to identify and analyse the concept. Describe the different methods of COG analysis.

Teaching methods: lecture, small group activity (max 10 persons).

Small group assignment

Within given scenario as a member of planning team Apply Centre of Gravity concept for planning of military operation

Day 5 and 6: OPERATIONAL DESIGN

The aim the teaching activity is to introduce the training audience with the purpose of the Operational Design and familiarize with the main components of the operational design, including:

  1. Operational Objectives
  2. Decisive Conditions
  3. Desired Effects
  4. Actions
  5. Lines of Operation and Options
  6. Phases of Operation
  7. Risk Assessment and Decision points

Explain the relation between Operational Design and COG and demonstrate different methods for developing operational design, effects/actions matrix and effects overlay. Explain the basic principles and methods of the operational assessment.

Teaching methods: lecture, scenario planning/simulation small group activity (max 10 persons).

Small group assignment

Within given scenario as a member of planning team develop operational design, including effects/actions matrix and overlay.

The duration of the syndicate tasks and lectures are tentative and depends on various external and internal factors, including complexity of the scenario, subject matter knowledge of the training audience and availability of the time.

This is one of the most important sections of the sub-curricula presentation. Here, you should go into detail on the modules / content to be covered in this sub-curricula. Identify and describe each one in at least a paragraph narrative text.

Beginner / Entry This course might be applicable for beginner / entry level participants, primarily civil servants with no previous operational planning experience
Intermediate / Advanced This course is primarily intended for intermediate level planners, who has some experience in operational level mission planning and execution
Expert / Specialisation This course can be incorporated into Expert/ Specialisation courses designed also for Policy Advisers within NATO/CSDP and other bodies

The sensitivity to diverse learning needs is important here. Some audiences are very mixed in terms of knowledge, experience and the other characteristics. To make sure that all of them are on the same page, it is recommended to use the evening-out courses. Particularly useful may be those provided by the ADL means.

Local ownership sensitivity is very important for the peacebuilding operation planning, a part of the teaching should concern integrating this perspective into planning of operations. Cultural sensitivity has been identified as one of the major thematic gaps especially in military operation planning (quote 3.2 report p. 40)

Local ownership sensitivity is very important for the peacebuilding operation planning, a part of the teaching should concern integrating this perspective into planning of operations. Cultural sensitivity has been identified as one of the major thematic gaps especially in military operation planning (quote 3.2 report p. 40)

When delivering this SC one or several of the following approaches can be undertaken:

  • E.g. Multi-stakeholder, participatory learning
  • E.g. Case-based learning

The methodology is that of a theory-application learning including the following methods:

  • LECTURES

Due complexity of the teaching subjects, for the teaching of the theoretical parts of curricula it is recommended to apply lecture/discussion method of teaching.

  • SCENARIO / SITUATION presentation + Scenario-Based Planning

The scenario (problem context of the practical part of the learning activity) is very important part of this course. The scenario has to represent relevant problem sets to the training audience to keep them engaged. It is very useful to develop the storyline and the scenario by using e-tools. This allows to inserting video and audio media to visualize the factors of operating environment and planning problems as well as allows training audience to get familiar with the scenario before active class engagement.

  • GROUP WORK ; Both in the analysis and development of case studies and scenarios and when in the training room participants with different future missions take part, small group teaching activities are very effective to gain concrete experience regarding all aspects of desired competencies, including skills, knowledge and attitudes.

PeaceTraining.EU has identified several ‘cross cutting themes’ which are important to integrate across peacebuilding and prevention curricula. Please show how these themes may be specifically integrated into this sub-curricula.

The mission planning SC builds upon a significant body of knowledge and practice developed in NATO, CSDP and country operations, innovation in this context and with respect to the training content could include:

  • Mixed civil-military training teams where the shared capacities and joint aspects of the mandate can enforce each other and sector-specific gaps can be covered through complementarity. Multiple-perspective operation planning: looking at the planning process not only through the lenses of the mission (mandate, leadership, members) but also through the lenses of the local population, other parallel missions etc.
  • Considerations in the mission planning module are also given together with the Do No Harm module to the aspect of “greening missions”
  • Using technology: various visual media tools can be used to introduce the training audience with the scenario settings and/or some aspects/challenges of operating environment, for example, short media reports can be used to highlight humanitarian problems in the operations area.

Are there new issues / questions / challenges being addressed in this area of sub-curricula (peacebuilding and prevention interventions-work-programming) which would be important / interesting / useful to mention. What are they? Describe them.

In police missions and other fields ‘competency’ and capacity building include more than in-the-room training. UN missions also provide pre-deployment ‘exams’ at times or tests, or, in the case of police, field-based accompaniment / mentoring. Are there approaches to developing competency / expertise in this curricula additional to ‘training’ which should be considered / listed.

In additional to training this SC could include:

  • In-field coaching and mentoring
  • Peer support teams and webinars
  • Action oriented research: producing through the intentional recording of operational planning models used an integrated model for CPPB operations planning for military and mixed teams
Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Course Title Link to Course Outline (if available)
NATO School Oberammergau ADL 131 Introduction to Comprehensive Operations Planning Directive jadl.act.nato.int
NATO School Oberammergau ADL 132 Strategic Comprehensive Operations Planning jadl.act.nato.int
NATO School Oberammergau ADL 133 Comprehensive Operations Planning Course (COPC) jadl.act.nato.int
NATO School Oberammergau ADL 134 Commander and Staff in Comprehensive Operations Planning and Decision-Making jadl.act.nato.int
NATO School Oberammergau ADL 134 Commander and Staff in Comprehensive Operations Planning and Decision-Making jadl.act.nato.int
NATO School Oberammergau S5-54 NATO Comprehensive Operations Planning Course www.natoschool.nato.int
Finish Defense Forces International Center NATO Comprehensive Operations Planning Course puolustusvoimat.fi

Introduction

According to the OECD-DAC, Security Sector Reform (SSR) means transforming the security sector, which includes all the actors, their roles, responsibilities and actions, so that they work together to manage and operate the system in a manner that is more consistent with democratic norms and sound principles of good governance, and thus contributes to a well-functioning security framework (OECD DAC). The United Nations refers to security sector reform (SSR) as “a process of assessment, review and implementation as well as monitoring and evaluation led by national authorities that has as its goal the enhancement of effective and accountable security for the State and its peoples without discrimination and with full respect for human rights and the rule of law”.

SSR is increasingly recognized as one of the key methods for international donors to contribute to security and development in conflict-affected and fragile states (OECD, 2007) . SSR, through state-building, institutional reform, advising, monitoring, mentoring, and training, has hence become a key policy of international peace and security actors such as the UNSC (2014) and the EU (Joint Communication, 2016) (see Box 1). The EU in particular takes on a range of SSR tasks through the use of Common Security and Defense Policy Missions, such as the police reform missions in DR Congo and Mali, and the training missions in Somalia and Libya.

Box 1: Importance of local ownership in international policy documents

UNSCR 2151: “Reiterates the centrality of national ownership for security sector reform processes, and further reiterates the responsibility of the country concerned in the determination of security sector reform assistance, where appropriate, and recognizes the importance of considering the perspectives of the host countries in the formulation of relevant mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions;”

EC Joint Communication of 2016: “‘National ownership’ goes beyond a government’s acceptance of international actors’ interventions. Reform efforts will be effective and sustainable only if they are rooted in a country’s institutions (including through budgetary commitment), owned by national security and justice actors, and considered legitimate by society as a whole. This means that national actors should steer the process and take overall responsibility for the results of interventions, with external partners providing advice and support.”

International policy documents on SSR uniformly stress the importance of local or national ownership in reform processes to ensure sustainability of the reforms and local support (EU, 2016; OECD, 2007, 2008 ; UNSC 2014).While in the rhetoric of the missions national ownership and local ownership are often overlapping terms referring to the inclusion of national (mainly state) institutions in the SSR process, this SC takes a more comprehensive approach to ownership including grassroot engagement as well as a strongly aware and critical view of different participation levels (see Arnstein, 1969).

Local ownership of SSR means that the reform of security policies, institutions, and activities in a given country must be designed, managed, and implemented by local actors rather than external actors” (Nathan, 2008) . Nonetheless, in practice, local ownership has often been raised as a key gap in SSR policies. Merlingen & Ostrauskaite (2005) have, for instance, pointed out the hierarchical and non-egalitarian nature of EU police reform in Bosnia. More recently, Ejdus (2017) and Jayasundara-Smits & Schirch (2016, pp.23-24) point out that the meaning and implications of local ownership continue to be a challenge for EU-CSDP missions.

Given the importance of Security Sector Reform missions and projects by international donors, as well as the continued challenges with regard to the implementation of local ownership principles, the PeaceTraining.eu project has developed this sub-curriculum on ‘Implementing local ownership in Security Sector Reform missions’.

While local ownership is one of the core principles of SSR, practicing local ownership often remains a challenge for many practitioners involved in project management, monitoring, mentoring, advising, and training tasks to support SSR in third countries. This course responds to this challenge and is designed to train practitioners on how to implement local ownership to ensure effective SSR, based on the principles of local ownership, legitimacy, human security, and democratic accountability. Effective implementation of SSR requires technical expertise (e.g. police, judiciary, military), but using this expertise to support local change processes also requires behavioural changes of technical experts. This course focuses on these behavioural processes and is aimed at delivering the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to implement local ownership and provides critical insights in the factors that inhibit or support local ownership in SSR operations (missions/projects).

The curricula includes different modules which can be implemented as a corollary to existing pre-deployment and SSR courses in the CPPB training field. Basic, Advanced, and Expert-level modules are designed to be targeted at specific stakeholder audiences according to their function in the SSR operation (incl. mission support, management functions, monitoring, mentoring, advising, and training (MMAT) functions, project design, monitoring, and evaluation positions). Figure 1 below indicates the core competencies for implementing local ownership necessary within an SSR operation and which are developed in the course (Additional competencies for implementing local ownership can be acquired through other courses/recruitment practices e.g. local language skills).

Table 1: The ASK model for implementing local ownership in SSR missions and projects (with module details)

Attitudes: All modules, cross-cutting Knowledge Skills
Respect for diversity Local history, politics, economy (M1) Intercultural communication, active listening (M1,2,3,4)
Inclusivity International policy documents (UNSC 2151) (M1) Dialogue and networking (M3,4)
Empathy Mission mandate (M1) Monitoring, Mentoring, Advising, and Training (MMAT) (M3)
Equality Code of conduct (M1) Political communication, negotiation and mediation (M3, 4)
Non-violence Concepts of human security, SSR, local ownership, MMAT (M1,2) Working with translators (M3)
Social responsibility Understanding context-sensitivity SSR (M1,2) Inclusive mission planning, implementation, and evaluation (M4)
Patience Understanding technical and political dimensions reform (M1,2) Identifying and managing relations with local and international SSR actors (M2,3, 4)
Respect for democracy, rule of law, human rights Understanding existence of formal and informal institutions (M1,2) Stakeholder analysis (M2,3,4)
Understanding need to involve non-state actors (M1,2) Organizational Change management (M3,4)
Self-awareness (M1,2,3,4)

Local Ownership has been identified as a major gap in CPPB project, programme and mission implementation as well as in CPPB training (D.3.2., p.38). Indeed, while many practitioners have become aware of the concept, the actual implementation or ‘how to’ of local ownership remains insufficiently addressed in training, and hence, insufficiently practiced on the ground. While the implementation of local ownership can also be hampered by lack of political will, this SC is specifically aimed at improving the skills needed for implementing local ownership.

Furthermore, the following arguments support the importance and need for this SC:

  • Effective implementation of local ownership in SSR missions is fundamentally dependent on the daily behaviour of in-mission staff with their local counterparts, including state actors in different hierarchical positions as well as non-state actors, including community representatives and civil society organizations.
  • These interactions are dependent on staff members’ knowledge of the local security sector as well as their mission objectives, but also of their attitudinal approaches towards interacting with local counterparts and their skills in rapport-building and involving local owners. Many SSR mission staff are experts in their field, but need to adapt to their supportive rather than implementing or executive role in the field. This requires training in itself.
  • An increasingly high level of complexity in considering SSR missions including consideration and coherence with other national policies regarding human rights and gender, transitional justice, DDR, anti-corruption measures, child and women protection etc, requires an increasingly high level of complexity in training to mirror the programmatic ambitions of the EU, UN and OSCE as institutions leading SSR processes in different regions

The training modules are all aimed at staff leaving on SSR missions, yet these are intended to have different levels of experience as well as functions. SSR missions and projects can take on different forms and sizes, but often require the field presence of staff with different experiences and job requirements. For instance, a mission aimed at training military and police also requires the presence of administrative support staff within the mission (HR, finance, logistics etc.). Module 1 is aimed at all these international mission staff and includes basic generic competencies training. The module can also be used to train staff deployed to non-SSR missions, for instance. Other modules are more advanced and focus specifically on local ownership in SSR and are aimed at personnel who are involved in implementing the SSR tasks of the mission. They do, however, build further on Module 1 competencies. Training organizations can target the modules to specific stakeholders, some of which with little to no mission experience, and some who have substantial experience but wish to sharpen their skills or prepare for new, advanced functions, thus these modules can be delivered during pre-deployment or /and as in-mission support.

The Training modules are aimed at different target groups depending on their levels of experience:

  • Module 1: All personnel active in the field in a CPPB mission/project/operation: personnel who are engaged in the SSR tasks of a specific mission as well as mission support staff. Hence, all staff that represents the mission and the organization on the ground.
  • Module 2: All personnel directly involved in the implementation of the SSR objectives of the mission (excluding HR, administration etc.)
  • Module 3: personnel engaged in MMAT activities or staff who are engaged in day-to-day contact with local counterparts.
  • Module 4: personnel involved in SSR mission design, management, monitoring, and evaluation, both in the field and in foreign HQs

Many trainings exist in Europe which focus on Security Sector Reform and excellent training materials have been developed and are built on in the curriculum (see bibliography below). Nonetheless, learning ‘how to do local ownership’ and going beyond an understanding of the concept and its principles continues to be a challenge for practitioners. This course is aimed at understanding, but principally applying local ownership as a process with the cross-cutting objective of attitudinal development.

This skill-based learning relies on adult learning principles and participatory methods by focusing on exercises and applications. Trainers and training institutes can build on the proposals in the curriculum to adapt or add to current trainings and are introduced to new competence-based approaches and exercise ideas Thus this SC is relevant and can serve as guidance for those training institutions and trainers with previous engagement in training on SSR who wish to implement practical and practice-oriented training programmes in the areas of SSR.

Through its highly practical nature and focus on developing skills and attitudes relevant and useful in concrete field operations, this SC is particularly relevant for practitioners and deployment organisations. Furthermore, practitioners and deployment organisations/agencies are invited to become involve in a peace training community of practice where this SC is ‘live’ developed and present as an action-oriented research and practice.

The curriculum and its stakeholder-specific modules will make SSR practitioners more effective in the field and support sustainability of donor actions by implementing local ownership in practice. It will train SSR experts to become mission planners, monitors, mentors, advisers, and trainers in local contexts and ensure their adjustment from their role of executive expert to supporter of local actions.

Figure: Stakeholder-specific modules for implementing local ownership in SSR missions

The 4 proposed modules can be implemented as sub-curricula or corollaries to existing SSR courses, which can include more detailed knowledge of the organization for which one is working for instance. In the EU context, existing courses can provide detailed training on EU (CSDP) structures and rules with regard to SSR missions, while the sub-curricula modules are used to delve deeper into the subject of the guiding principle of local ownership.

The following sub-curricula may be directly linked (as pre-requisites, further professionalisation or complementary) to the IMPLEMENTING LOCAL OWNERSHIP IN SECURITY SECTOR REFORM (SSR) MISSIONS sub-curricula when developing more comprehensive training programmes or seeking to integrate in development of core competencies and operational capabilities in this field:

  • Mission Leadership
  • Do No Harm
  • Monitoring, Evaluation of Peace Missions
  • Dialogue, Peace Processes and Policy Planning

The curriculum exists of 4 modules which are categorized as basic, advanced, and expert-level.

Module 1 is the most basic and is aimed to provide mission personnel with the necessary generic knowledge, skills, and attitudes to function effectively and principled in a SSR mission. It targets all mission staff from the principle that all staff represent the organization and that their behaviour can impact the overall effectiveness of the mission. CPPB staff are expected to adhere to certain values and inter-relational behaviours that correspond with the principles of local ownership and peacebuilding in general. The learning objectives correspond closely to those of pre-deployment courses, yet aim to strengthen their attainment by developing further participatory approaches to learning and the emphasis is on awareness on the importance and possibilities to practice local ownership in missions.

Module 2 is more advanced and deals specifically with the subject of local ownership, its complexities and nuances. Participants will take up key political functions in the SSR mission or roles as MMATs. The module is to a large extent aimed at understanding and knowledge, but also at critically reflecting on local ownership practices, including their context specificities, and how political objectives can undermine local ownership principles. Participants should also have a good understanding of the wider societal scope of SSR and the need to focus beyond state actors as well as at national policies that do not fall strictly under SSR yet have strong interlinks with this theme. These complexities are specifically addressed by reference to concrete case examples, drawing on experiences from experts and training participants.

Module 3 focuses on those practitioners who will be in engaged in frequent interaction with local counterparts. The aim of this module is to focus deeper on the tasks and different expectations of monitors, mentors, advisers, and trainers, and to foster intercultural communication competences,including deep culture awareness, DNH’s IEMs , active listening, probing, working with local translators, body language, and MSH dialogue negotiation and mediation. The module is mainly exercise-based (e.g. role-plays and simulations) and deepens the knowledge of the self and the participant’s interrelational behaviour, and supports attitudinal developments (e.g. respect for diversity, patience, equality, empathy)

Module 4 is aimed at those practitioners responsible for designing, managing, reporting, and evaluating SSR missions. These experts are trained to support local actors in designing their SSR reform objectives at the strategic level, which requires in depth knowledge of the local security sector and its challenges as well as successes (e.g. needs assessment and stakeholder analysis). Furthermore, participants are equipped with the tools to ensure and recognise through specific indicators local ownership throughout the project duration while also safeguarding their organizations’ principles of democracy and human rights protection. These tasks require advanced communicational and negotiation skills to be able to pick up on local signals that indicate the need to adapt the reform process or the way in which it is conducted.

Course Levels
Beginner / Entry See Module 1
Intermediate / Advanced See Modules 2 & 3
Expert / Specialisation See Module 4

The 5 sensitivities model developed by PeaceTraining.eu are highly relevant for this sub-curricula:

  • Peace & Conflict Sensitivity: training participants will recognise that SSR processes can never be successful if they are not context and conflict-specific and if they are driven from the top-down (from the international level to the local context or from the state-level to the population-level) rather than designed following inclusive and participatory procedures. Participants will, however be introduced to major possible differences between conflict settings and how this affects SSR and local ownership missions. This enables them to compare their own mission and case with others on relevant indicators, without being given prescriptive instructions on how to handle specific cases. These aspects are included throughout the four modules in different levels of complexities.
  • Cultural sensitivity: cultural sensitivity is one of the crucial aspects of this training. The training is expected to train participants in cultural (self-)awareness and communication, instil them with respect for diversity, and the input from locals. All these sensitivities should not only be part of the curriculum but also reflected in the classroom, for example by including local voices and experiences in the classroom (presence, virtual or real, of local SMEs), by ensuring that interlocutors are aware of possible biases and critically picking up on participant and SME interventions which touch on cultural sensitive issues.
  • Gender Sensitivity: gender sensitivities should be mainstreamed throughout the course. For instance, in specific cases, the role of women in the security sector can be analysed and compared. The role of women can also be discussed when debating the principles of international practitioners and how they can differ from local cultures. Yet gender sensitivities should also be discussed in skills-training as intercultural communication can differ according to the gender and societal characteristics of the local actor. Gender lenses are crucial in MMAT activities as well as in mission design, monitoring and evaluation. While local actors should be involved in these processes, it is important that participants learn that ‘local actor’ is a generic category and that specific local actors (including women, children, marginalized populations) require specifically adapted inclusion processes.
  • Trauma sensitivity: participants to the training can have acquired prior experiences in their work and in specific conflict-affected settings which they consider traumatic. Trainers should be aware of possible re-traumatization when discussing specific cases, showing particular images and witness testimonies etc. they should ensure this safety check throughout the training, including SME lectures, and be wary of signs of trauma among participants to the training.
  • Sensitivity to Diverse Learning Needs: trainers should be wary of people’s diverse preferences in learning for group work, individual work, lectures, and other activities. Training should be carefully planned and ensure variation in types of learning activities and in the use of materials in the classroom and through e-learning by distributing key texts, podcasts, video’s etc. Many courses in CPPB predominantly make use of lecturing activities, however, which creates gaps in skills-development and participatory or adult learning approaches. By focusing on exercises, engagement, and skills, this sub-curricula addresses these gaps in CPPB and SSR training in particular.

The methodology and approach to training is a crucial aspect in the design of this curriculum. It takes the approach that adult learning and participatory learning approaches are most suitable to learn skills-based competencies and this is exactly what is aimed at in ‘Implementing local ownership in SSR missions’. Below we discuss in detail for each module the core and sub-learning objectives and methods to achieve them by taking into account the field’s need for more interactive learning approaches (see D3.5.).

MODULE 1: learning objectives and training approaches

1. Understanding the concepts of local ownership, SSR, Human Security and MMAT:

  • Acknowledging that there is no one definition and understanding around some of these concepts especially local ownership and SSR which continue to undergo conceptual evolution and contestations among various organisations, practitioners and academics (Donais 2008). Ultimately influencing how local ownership and SSR are implemented by different organisations.
  • Being familiar with key policy documents on local ownership in SSR processes (UNSC 2151, EU 2016, OECD Handbook) and key conceptual differences, including between ‘local’ and ‘national’ ownership, as well as the human security shift in SSR
  • Recognising that although a highly contested concept, local ownership is at the centre of SSR, and all major CPPB organizations adhere to this principle.
  • To understand the concept of local ownership, Schirch and Mancini-Griffoli (2015 p 18) highlights four key questions that ought to be answered:

    Responding to and assessing these questions, will enable personnel to clearly understand the interlinkages and complexities surrounding the conceptualisation and practice of local ownership

  • Understanding that local ownership should not be limited to state or national level engagement but should transcend to the community level to include other non-state actors and practices (human security)
  • Understanding that human security is an integrated and multidimensional approach to security moving beyond traditional military mechanisms to emphasising the interlinkages between development, human rights and security. It aims to enhance human liberty and survival by creating the necessary social, economic, political, security and cultural conditions vital to improving people’s quality of live (UN Human Security Unit 2009)
  • Understanding the interlinkages between local ownership, SSR and human security. Whiles SSR focuses on security reforms, human security expands further to include development and human rights dimensions. Ultimately, SSR and human security cannot be successfully operationalized in the absence of local ownership and participation.
  • Understanding that Monitoring Mentoring Advising and Training (MMAT) are essential to the implementation of SSR mission mandates.

Facilitation Approaches and Methods: SME lecture presentation on the concepts and their applicability in the field of practices. Opportunities for discussions and comments should be provided. Use of some case studies will be useful in expanding personnel understanding of some of the complexities in operationalising local ownership in SSR missions. Class quiz would also be useful in enabling participants to have in-depth knowledge on these concepts.

2. To understand the local context within which they operate: SSR personnel are deployed to several locations often times in contexts that are different both physically and culturally. Thus, for personnel to effectively implement their mandate and enhance local ownership, it is important for them to:

  • Understand the historical, political, and economic contexts in which they operate and how these factors interlink with the SSR mission
  • Primarily become aware of their own differences, culture and values vis a vis that of the host country and how these influence behaviour and actions. Becoming aware of your own uniqueness and difference is important to acknowledging and respecting that of others
  • Recognise the importance of accepting and respecting the existing culture, attitudes, values and practices within the local context
  • Know that accepting and respecting values and practices in the local setting does not mean completely ignoring your own values but rather finding ways to maximize the commonalities and minimizing the differences (ENTRi).
  • Understand some of the best practices and challenges to operationalising local ownership particularly in post conflict societies. The United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UNDPKO) highlights some best practices

Putting Local Ownership into Practice While the approach will vary depending on the specific context and activity, there are some general good practices that can be applied.

  • Take a participatory approach and engage local actors at the earliest possible stage through liaison, coordination and consultation, gathering information about needs and perceptions, and engaging local stakeholders in planning processes.
  • Channel information from the local level to mission headquarters about local constituencies and marginalized populations’ needs, concerns and priorities, and support the articulation of local grievances, interests and needs to inform national-level processes.
  • Tailor the approach to the specific context and the nature of the activity by looking at local systems, structures, strengths, weaknesses and dynamics. Conduct regular analysis of the micro-level socio-political, economic and cultural context and calibrate the approach accordingly.
  • Value and make use of local or “insider” knowledge and expertise, including that of National Professional Officers and local counterparts.
  • Avoid undermining local capacity by “doing” or “replacing” rather than enabling: identify and build on existing processes and structures (informal and formal).
  • Guard against bringing preconceived ideas or assumptions about what the problems or solutions are, for example by conducting joint assessments with local counterparts, by asking local stakeholders what they consider their needs or capacity gaps to be, or what they believe are the root causes of and solutions to conflict.

Facilitation Approaches and Methods: SME’s presentation should be integrated with role plays or simulation exercises. Here ‘Meme Awareness’ propounded by the PeaceTraining.eu could be a useful exercise (PeaceTraining.eu 2017). Case studies examples from the 13 EU SSR missions could be used in expatiating on how the organisation has been operationalising local ownership, the challenges and future prospects.

3. To understand the general mandate of SSR missions:

  • Understanding of the core mandate and role of SSR missions. According to the EU Council, the core mandate of SSR missions are to among other things support: defence sector reform, police sector reform, judicial sector reform, financial reforms, border and customs sector reforms, demilitarize, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR), as well as other general support (EU Council 2005, pp 13-16). Generally, these are implemented through channels such as capacity building, technical support and cooperation and advisory support to the receiving state (EC 2006; Bloching 2011).
  • Understanding the principles guiding the implementation of such missions; which include local ownership; measuring progress; holistic approach; tailored approach and co-ordinated approach (EU Council 2005).
  • Personnel become familiar with the areas of engagement with regards to SSR missions and their thematic focus.
  • When possible, understanding the own mission mandate of to-be-deployed personnel with regard to the mission’s SSR objectives

Facilitation Approaches and Methods: SME lecture presentation on the various SSR frameworks. Allocating adequate time for discussions after the presentation will be very useful. Additionally, course assignments could be allocated to personnel to review and compare existing SSR frameworks. Adding reading materials on various SSR frameworks and legislations would be useful.

4. To understand the code of conduct for operations in such missions:

  • Understanding and knowledge of the legal frameworks guiding SSR operations such as the Lisbon Treaty (2007), the Generic Standards of Behaviour for CSDP Operations (2005), Revised Guidelines for the Protection of Civilians in CSDP Missions (2010), International Human Rights Law, Code of Conduct and Discipline for EU Civilian CSDP Missions (2016)
  • Understanding the process for seeking redress as well as the disciplinary channels
  • Understanding the rules of engagement within the mission
  • Understanding the Chain of Command/ the Command and Control structures within SSR field missions

Facilitation Approaches and Methods: SME lecture presentation on code of conduct and legal frameworks guiding SSR operations. Role plays could be used to demonstrate the channels for reporting and chain of command of the mission. Supplementary reading materials on the frameworks would be useful.

5 To have general knowledge of the competences essential for the implementation of local ownership: Implementing local ownership in any mission including that of SSR is admittedly a challenging task. This is because often times, it is difficult for personnel to be equipped with the adequate practical competences and skills as well as how to effectively utilize these competences in the field of practice. To effectively implement local ownership, personnel must be equipped with knowledge and capacity in various competences including but not limited to the following:

  • Self-Awareness: Generally defined as the recognition of “one’s own personality and individuality” , self-awareness is an essential competency that SSR personnel need to acquire before, during and after deployment. Acquiring such competency not only enable personnel to be aware of their own backgrounds, views, perceptions, and interests and how they influence their work in the field but more importantly enlighten them on how they are going to manage their positionality in the face of contrasting views and values in the field. As Savin-Baden and Major (2013: 71) rightly underscore, being aware of their positionality, enable individuals or personnel to “interrogate their biases, beliefs, stances and perspectives”. In other words, recognising what makes you different and unique is a good starting point to acknowledging, respecting and accepting others’ differences. Self-awareness ultimately result in cultural/intercultural awareness where personnel becomes aware of and respects the diverse perspectives, values, and principles existing within the local context and how that shapes or influences their work.
  • Effective Communication: Communication is a fundamental element in peacebuilding and by extension SSR. Having the skills to interact, articulate and transfer information and knowledge with clarity is a quality that is necessary for SSR personnel. In fact, the UN and other peace intervention organisation have underscored that while communication is vital, it continues to be a major gap in peace operations (UN Peacebuilding Support Office 2010). With most personnel deployed into SSR missions often from different backgrounds, orientation and language to that of the host country, communication becomes a challenge. Which is why it is important for personnel to learn how to actively listen, be aware of their body language and gestures, maximize communication tools within such setting to enable them to interact effectively with the various stakeholders. Some emerging tools for effective communication include Richard Salem’s Empathic listening (or reflective listening) which enables individuals to put themselves in others situation to understand their emotions, feelings and challenges in order to build trust, openness, and create spaces for “collaborative problem solving” (Salem 2003 ). There is also communication peacebuilding or communication for peace, a concept which enables individuals or practitioners to maximize existing and innovative communication resources to engender peace (SFCG and USIP 2011; Hoffmann 2013).
  • Consensus Building: One of the essential roles of personnel is to enhance stakeholder dialogue and engagement in SSR missions. That is, contribute to improving collaboration and interactions within and among stakeholders as well as assist in mobilising different interest groups. To do these, it is important for personnel to be equipped with consensus building skills such as negotiation, mediation and facilitation.
  • Cultural sensitivity: Acknowledging and respecting the culture, values and practices in field missions is essential to achieving sustainable peacebuilding. Similarly in SSR missions, it is important for personnel to be culturally sensitive to the different practices and values which sometimes, if not often, contrast their own views and opinions. For Snodderly (2011, p.17) cultural sensitivity is when individuals become “aware of cultural differences and how they affect behaviour, and moving beyond cultural biases and preconceptions to interact effectively”.
  • Facilitation Approaches and methods: SME facilitation on basic useful skills or competences for the implementation of local ownership. Tools such as the Bennett Scale for intercultural awareness, Empathic listening, communication for peace among others could be used as approaches to enhancing these skills. Enough time should be allocated for discussions and comments to enable participants to have in-depth knowledge and understanding of these basic competences. The use of role plays or simulation exercises would be useful in providing participants with practical tips on when and how to utilize these competences in the field of practice. Additionally, group activities or exercises could also be useful. Group activities such as ‘Elephant list’, ‘Just listen’, ‘blindfold game’ etc could be exciting and engaging ways for enhancing personnel’s communication skills (See Mindtools.com ; also see Garber 2008). Videos and online games could also be useful tools on expanding personnel knowledge on communication.

MODULE 2: learning objectives and training approaches

1. Understanding technical and political dimensions SSR: SSR is a technical process aimed at reforming (aspect of) a local security sector. This requires technical expertise often delivered by third countries (e.g. police, judiciary, military etc.). Yet SSR is also a political process, with several dimensions participants should know and be able to assess critically:

  • An SSR process touches issues of political power in the home state and often has a sensitive nature. Changing the status quo can be considered a threat for some actors, both for legitimate and illegitimate reasons.
  • Local ownership entails that the reform process is started by the local actors, while international actors lend support. In practice, however, international actors have own political interests that can undermine local ownership.
  • Local ownership does not mean that the values of the international organization including democracy, rule of law, and human rights are sidestepped. Not all local actors will be committed to these values.
  • Often many international actors, with different political interests and/or missions also play a role in the process

Training approaches and methods: (SME) lecture(s) on the political dimensions of SSR missions and their implications for local ownership. The approach to lecturing should reflect local ownership as a model for application on site. Include the participants in the teaching process, build on their needs and goals. Leave sufficient time for class questions and answers/class discussion on these issue by drawing on participants’ prior experiences. Case studies to highlight difficulties with the political nature of international mission to support SSR and local ownership (e.g. the CSDP mission in Niger, which is by local actors not seen as their priority, the CSDP mission in Kosovo which continues to be in place because the EU cannot make a political decision with regard to Kosovo’s independence). If possible, draw on local expert opinions on these issues (invited to the classroom/video).

2. Understand that SSR is context-sensitive and no reform process will be the same:

  • Understand that some SSR processes are managed by local actors, yet in some cases international actors can take up more of a lead role, for example in countries emerging out of conflict or failed states, whose security sector structures have collapsed. This has implications for local ownership.
  • Understand that SSR activities on the ground can take on a different nature. Some are aimed at substantial reform in governance structures (in one or multiple sectors such as police and defence), others are more limited (e.g. training and capacity-building of local staff). These have different implications for local ownership.
  • Understand that in some contexts, international practitioners are positively received by local populations (e.g. as liberators), in others they are viewed negatively (e.g. invaders). This has implications for overall mission success.
  • Understand that security sectors are governed by formal as well as informal rules. While formal structures may seem similar between countries, this is not necessarily the case for informal ones. Each country hence requires in-depth analysis, a tailored approach, and fine tuning in handling

Training approaches and methods: The learning objectives are suitable for comparative case analysis. For example Central African Republic-Mali (status of local security sector; formal/informal governance), Kosovo-Afghanistan (reception local population), DR Congo-Ukraine (different types of SSR missions). Case analysis can be done on the basis of (SME) lectures with class discussion. This can be supported by the inclusion of (group) exercises with guiding questions, including, in which cases is local ownership strongest and why? Does this ensure success? Classify other cases (short descriptions prepared by facilitator based on real-life examples) along dimensions of involvement international actors/safeguarding local ownership. Let participants reflect on how this is related to our conceptualization of ‘who is the local owner'.

3. Understanding the different actors involved in an SSR process:

  • Depending on the nature of an SSR process, different local actors are involved. What is important, however, is to look beyond state actors even when the locus of change is often situated in state structures. Security sectors also involve non-state actors, both as providers of security and justice and as oversight institutions. Local populations are ideally involved when going to a process of ‘human security’. Take into account that this wider involvement does not necessarily correspond with host government expectations of the reform process, but that it has become part of international practices. The issue of ‘who is the local owner’ is indeed contentious, and different organizations will point to different actors, which have own political interests
  • Participants learn that ‘local actor’ is a generic category and that specific local actors (including women, children, marginalized populations) require specifically adapted inclusion processes.
  • Other international organizations are involved in SSR processes. Depending on the nature of each international actor’s involvement, effective SSR can require information exchange or close collaboration between these actors. The relationship between international actors on the ground is often difficult.

Training approaches and methods: Small group exercise on local actors involved in a security sector (see DCAF Figure 1 below, flipchart exercise) (SME) lecture on the actors included in a specific SSR process, preferably with attention to non-state actors and human security. Group exercise: which local actors should be involved in different types of missions (prepare short mission descriptions based on real-life examples)? Small group exercise on international actors that can be involved in SSR processes. (SME) lecture on challenges of cooperation on the ground, with ample room for question and answer session/class discussion.

4. Being able to critically analyse organisational/ mission objectives and strategy with regard to SSR

  • Be aware of the objectives of your mission and strategy. Assess whether these have sufficient local ownership to ensure sustainability.
  • A viable exit strategy with clear criteria is needed in SSR processes. Understand that political factors can have a negative impact on this.

Training approaches and methods: (SME) lecture(s) of different types of SSR missions and their implications for local ownership. Individual analysis, small group work, and class discussion of case studies based on real-life examples of SSR projects, centred around the question of local ownership in individual cases, sustainability, and exit strategies. If possible, also include analysis of participants’ own mission or draw on their prior experiences.

MODULE 3: learning objectives and training approaches

1. Understanding and applying principles of effective communication

Communication in general:

  • Being aware that communication is an act of transferring information from one person (sender) to another person (receiver) but includes verbal, non-verbal, formal – non-formal elements. Communication is delivered in a structured form following local, timely accepted and preferred scripts, rituals.
  • Be aware that verbal and non-verbal communication can lead to unforeseen reactions (different expectations and interpretations).
  • Being able to use communication models like the four sides model of communication from Schulz v Thun (factual Information, a self-statement, a relationship indicator, an appeal.
  • Being able to use communication techniques like active listening and feedback to enable the monitor, mentor, adviser and trainer to build trust and common understanding, to share experience/knowledge with the local counterpart.

Training approaches and methods: theoretical input (preparation: E-learning) and discussions/group work. Role plays (sender-receiver exercises), examples of different ways of expressingand interacting in different cultures- show little clips and let them interpret.

2. Understanding and applying principles of effective cross-cultural communication

  • Being aware how people from different cultures speak and communicate verbally and non-verbally (i.e. gestures, eye-contact, body-distance)

Training approaches and methods: theoretical input (preparation: E-learning) and discussions/group work. Role plays (sender-receiver exercises) by ensuring a mix of participants’ cultural backgrounds.

3. Understand the chances and risks using interpreters.

  • Being aware that interpreters – apart from language skills – have institutional knowledge, know the local culture and habits and are able to provide situational awareness.
  • Interpreters are not only “switching” the language, they are part of the interaction between two persons and might defuse potential conflicts, might provide important interpersonal information like i.e. interpretation of non-verbal gestures of your local counterpart.
  • Taking care about “technical issues”: breaks between statements, talk to your local counterpart and not to the interpreter, respect your interpreter and take care of good working conditions

Training approaches and methods: (SME) lectures and sharing of best practices, role-play exercises, example video’s and class discussion on what worked/did not work

4. Understanding “Monitoring”:

  • Being aware that Monitoring has different meanings
  • Capacity building and development activities: Monitoring as a technique used in substitution and strengthening missions “to observe performance, efficiency and work methods of the local counterparts with a view to drawing conclusions about how to improve their performance through mentoring and advising.

    Observation of and reporting on an activity or area related to mandated or implied tasks within a United Nations peace operation. This is the case when, for example, the compliance with international agreements or a ceasefire is to be monitored”.

  • Monitoring is a broad term describing the active collection, verification and immediate use of information to address i.e. human rights problems, problems in disarmament and demobilisation of i.e. police forces and other observing events (i.e. elections, trials, visiting places of detentions, refugee camps) in different phases of a conflict (conflict prevention, peace-keeping, conflict resolution, peace-building).
  • Being aware that monitoring means to observe the performance, efficiency and work methods of the local counterparts.
  • Being aware of different types of reports (i.e. Incident Reports, non-compliance reports) and understand how to write an accurate report for fulfilling the task in question. Each task needs different information for the target audience.

Training approaches and methods: Theoretical input, role plays (create a scenario between “locals” which has to be monitored The outcome of the scenario has to be reported) and simulation exercise (form groups, provide a mandate – i.e. monitor the situation during the return of IDP’s to their previous homes – write a report).

5. Understanding “Advising”

  • Being aware that “advising/training” focuses on the institutional side in order to provide information about different, additional ways, approaches, achievements, etc, and/or improve/change the performance and work methods of local counterparts
  • Understand that “advising” is a tool which can be used to resolve an accurate problem (short term) and/or an entire reform process (long term)

Understanding “Training”

  • Training requires the necessary skills in areas (i.e. crowd and riot control, money-laundering) which should be trained and lead into national education/qualification of a trainer.
  • Training can be the tool of an advising process – informing relevant personnel about and educating them in an institution “new” practise/approach

Training approaches and methods: Theoretical input, role plays using videotaping, followed by detailed feedback and comments by th role players

6. Relation between “Monitoring, Mentoring, Advising”

  • Understand the relation between “Monitoring, Mentoring and Advising”. A monitoring process can be used to assess the overall situation first of all. “The results of monitoring should feed into and shape all on-going and/or planned activities […], including political engagement strategy, human rights work […] training, mentoring and advising […]. There must be a clear linkage between the monitoring process and the designing of policies and strategic direction.
  • Understand the difference between “Monitoring, Mentoring and Advising”. “As opposed to mentors, advisers work on a strategic, mid – to senior management level and advise an organization, rather than an individual. An advisor works with his/her counterpart(s) to build or strengthen the institution, either by helping solve a particular problem or accompanying the entire reform process, while a mentor guides another person in developing his/her own ideas, learning and personal and professional competences.” Another difference lies in the duration of the process; “unlike mentoring, which clearly is a long term commitment, advising could be performed by visiting experts if it is a short-term effort requiring specific expertise not available within the mission.” A monitoring process can lead to an advising process when the need of improving the performance, efficiency and work methods of the local counterparts is identified.
  • Being aware of fostering diagnostic skills for being able to make decisions, what to do on site.

Training approaches and methods: Group work/discussion, followed by theoretical in-depth amendments.

MODULE 4: learning objectives and training approaches

1. Being able to conduct a comprehensive, locally informed security sector analysis with attention for activities of other international actors

  • Understanding the need to elicit input on the security sector from a wide variety of local state and non-state actors.
  • Understanding the need to make specific efforts to include the voices of women, children, and marginalized populations.
  • Understanding the need to elicit input on the security sector reform activities of other international actors.
  • Understand the need for good information prior to recommendation.
  • Being able to engage local and international interlocutors (with the aid of translators) by active listening and asking specific, probing questions.
  • Being able to conduct stakeholder mapping and analysis as a basis for mission design.

Training approaches and methods: (SME) lecture(s) and case studies on the negative effects of recommendations and SSR implementation without suitable prior analysis. Role-play exercise: participants’ interview each other on the nature of their own SSR background and should be able to reproduce acquired information. Case study group exercise: the host government has asked your organization to… who should you talk to in order to get a better understanding of the situation?

2. Being able to identify and manage local actors pro and contra reform

  • Based on the stakeholder analysis and a mapping of their interests, identify appropriate strategies to ensure local ownership, but also that the values of democracy, rule of law, and respect for human rights are included.
  • Being able to implement communication, negotiation, and mediation techniques to this goal.
  • Being aware of how your personal communication style can affect your rapport with various local partners.
  • Being aware of own stereotypes and be able to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate reasons to obstruct reform (e.g. reforms are too top-down and do not sufficiently take into account local practices vs lack of interest in reform itself, but more interest in financial aid).

Training approaches and methods: (SME) lecture(s) and experience sharing, class discussion. Lecture on communication styles (e.g. Rose of Leary) and negotiation and mediation techniques accompanied by role-play exercises: e.g. two participants have to work together on an issue, with their own interests, and by taking on different communication styles (unknown to the other player). Other participants observe and can provide feedback. This exercise can be done in smaller groups.

3. Being able to include local actors in planning, management, monitoring, and evaluation

  • Understanding the need to include local owners in all stages of the SSR project to ensure a viable exit strategy.
  • Being able to combine stakeholder analysis and communication skills to create participatory feedback processes with local actors.
  • Support local actors in developing planning, managing, monitoring, and evaluation tools that suit the local situation.
  • Understand that it can be better to be included in the local planning process rather than them be included in your organization’s process.
  • Devise strategies to align organizational goals and planning and evaluation tools with those of local and international actors.

Training approaches and methods: (SME) lecture(s) and experience sharing, class discussion (e.g. what is your organization’s planning process, how are local actors involved?). Discussion of different planning tools and group work on how best to ensure that these safeguard local ownership. Allow participants to think of planning adaptations to involve local actors.

4. Being able to create political buy-in for reform and a viable exit strategy

  • Know principles of organizational change management and how to implement them.
  • Understand the need for flexibility in SSR processes.
  • Being able to include mechanisms for adaptation and feedback in SSR projects.
  • Being able to define a realistic exit strategy with clear criteria.

Training approaches and methods: (SME) lecture(s) and experience sharing, class discussion: best practices and lessons learned in sustainable SSR processes.

Module training approaches and methods: Final exercise: simulation in which each participant is given a role in an SSR reform process: a range of local actors and international actors of different organizations. Participants should design the project and bring it to a successful conclusion. Throughout the stages of the exercise (design, implementation, monitoring, evaluation), the participants are met with scenario-based challenges including adverse circumstances and differences in characters’ role and interests (unknown to the other players). Feedback on performance, including own body language and communication style (e.g. video).

  • Local/National Ownership as skills- and attitudes- based training is not currently the priority of SSR training programmes, so this SC brings novelty as innovation through its topic and practice and skills-oriented training approached.
  • Local/National Ownership has been integrated into the themes and implementation methods of CPPB curricula.
  • Methodological ICT and Live: Simulations of SSR dialogue and planning processes can be integrated.
  • Multi-stakeholder (MSH) Delivery of the Training and MSH profile of the participants in the training.

Many courses make use of SSR experts to provide deeper insights into the practice of SSR. However, these experts are most of the time international practitioners, rather than local actors from a country where SSR has taken place with international assistance. By only including the foreign experts in training courses, there is a potential bias in that only one side is given voice and their perceptions of their best practices are transferred. This calls for the inclusion of local experts: state actors involved in the process, independent observers, or community actors. Local actors will not speak in a uniform manner and hold different opinions, yet this also rings true for international experts. Demonstrating this variety of opinions would be strengthened by involving local actors in training courses (on the ground and in Europe). In e-learning courses as well, local voices could be further included. For example, while DCAF/ISSAT’s e-learning course ‘Fundamentals of Strategic Advising in Reform Environments’ includes interesting testimonies of practitioners, it does not include input from local actors. Here we can think of local testimonies (e.g. video’s and podcasts).

This is not the only addition that can be made to e-learning courses. Many of these are currently aimed at understanding key principles and challenges, but not at skill-application. This can be made possible by also including more online skill-based exercises, potentially in group through a virtual classroom, and with the help of an online facilitator. These types of spaces can also be used to create interaction between local actors and international practitioners.

The SC will mirror in the training space the principles contained and expected in LO SSR missions, namely participants’ ownership of the process, participation, needs-based training etc. Through the proposed sub-curricula modules, the competencies of international experts to engage with and implement the principle of local ownership in the field are developed and/or enhanced. However, it is important to additional factors that can support the effective implementation of local ownership that go beyond training. These include:

WORKING PROCEDURES: The development of local ownership competencies outside of training courses is hence to a large extent also dependent on mission mandates and organizational working procedures. Addressing weaknesses in these could further support the implementation of the local ownership principle in SSR missions.

  • Recruitment and hiring practices (e.g. Autesserre, 2014): international practitioners are often only in the field for relatively short periods of time and most international missions have high turnover rates. This practice is not conducive to the development and exercise of local ownership competencies: indeed, stakeholder analysis, needs assessment, understanding the local situation, and in particular the need to build trust and cooperative relations with local counterparts take time. While reporting can accommodate knowledge-based institutional memory, the relational aspect crucial to local ownership is threatened by high turnover rates. Another issue is that many expert are hired based on their knowledge of ‘SSR’ but not based on their local expertise and networks. Indeed, there exist specialists in SSR, but not ‘SSR in DR Congo/Mali/…’. Nonetheless, in-depth knowledge of the local context is often what is most needed for international actors to support rather than supplant local reform processes.
  • As other institutional reform processes, SSR takes time. This is true for the local reform initiators, but also has implications for international practitioners. The tendency to use quick, short-term SSR missions (see CSDP mission, for example) is not necessarily conducive to the development of local ownership competencies, nor their effective use on the ground. On the other hand, however, short-term interventions could potentially safeguard local ownership better.
  • The development and effective use of the competencies targeted in this curriculum can be obstructed as a result of mission designs and mandates which do not correspond to local ownership principles. This is often where the political nature of missions and mandates come in, and funding reluctance on the part of international actors. The SC will balance the principled approach of needs-based action with the realities of implementation of where participants are coming from.

IN FIELD-COACHING: Who mentors the mentors? Once in the field, personnel can find themselves in difficult situations not addressed in training or adapt behavioural patterns unconducive to local ownership. Possible ways to address this include:

  • Support desk: the trainer, facilitator or expert remains in contact with participants (e.g. virtual group) and can provide feedback and advise when difficult questions arise. Participants can also provide each other with advice. This coaching could be institutionalized within the framework of the course.
  • In-field follow-up: while this SC considers training prior to deployment, this can be complemented by in-field training organized within a specific missions and in which participants can go much deeper into detail about their own situation and challenges.
Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Course Title Link to Course Outline (if available)
ESDC Pre-Deployment Training (PDT) eeas.europa.eu
ESDC Advanced Course for Political Advisors
ESDC Strategic Planning process for CSDP missions and operations
ESDC In-mission training on SSR
ESDC Basic Course on SSR
ESDC Core Course on SSR
ESDC CSDP High Level Course
ESDC Cross-Cultural Competence (3C) for CSDP missions and operations
ESDC Mediation, Negotiation and Dialogue Skills for CSDP
ENTRi Core Course www.entriforccm.eu
ENTRi Specialization course SSR www.entriforccm.eu
CEPOL Monitoring, Mentoring, Advising
Title Organisation / Institution Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
UNSC 2151 UN 2014 unscr.com
EU Joint Communication SSR EU 2016 ec.europa.eu
OECD DAC Handbook on Security System Reform: Supporting Security and Justice OECD 2008 www.oecd.org
The SSR Adviser’s Handbook FBA 2016
SSR in a Nutshell: Manual for introductory training on Security Sector Reform DCAF/ISSAT 2012
E-learning: Introduction to Security Sector Reform DCAF/ISSAT issat.dcaf.ch
E-learning: Fundamentals of Strategic Advising in Reform Environments DCAF/ISSAT issat.dcaf.ch

Civilian / NGO

Civilians are involved in SSR missions through missions and projects by international organizations and states as well as through independent civil society projects. They can take up different positions, from mission support staff through mission planners, to monitors, mentors, and advisers (e.g. judiciary sector). The SC on implementing local ownership in SSR is not restricted to a specific sector, be it civilian, military or police, state or non-state. Rather it is aimed at building the skills necessary for implementing local ownership through a wide range of activities performed by actors in specific functions in a mission. Hence, while the modules are targeted at audiences with different experience levels, they are not restrictive in terms of sector. Indeed, a mix of participation from different sectors can be beneficial to participatory training. A certain degree of homogeneity, can of course, make shared understanding and communication between participants easier. Depending on their role, civilians can benefit from participation in all modules.

EEAS / Diplomats / Civil Servants

Diplomats and EEAS staff are strongly involved in SSR missions given the importance attached to SSR in CSDP missions. Furthermore, several authors have argued that CSDP missions still lack local ownership (e.g. Ejdus, 2017). This module can benefit all mission personnel (Module 1), staff in HQ and in the field involved in SSR activities (Module 2), staff in the field involved in MMAT (Module 3), and mission design and planning staff, both in the field and in HQ (Module 4)

Military / Armed Forces

The military (together with the police) is a traditional area of involvement in security sector reform. Nations aiming to reform their armed forces often rely on a mentoring, advising, and training role of foreign military-trained personnel. Furthermore, military observers often take up monitoring tasks in conflict-affected settings (e.g. ceasefires). While international military personnel has specific technical, administrative, and strategic knowledge, their SSR tasks in third countries requires additional training aiding them to become supporters rather than ‘do-ers’ in an SSR process. This course provides these actors with the additional knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to safeguard local ownership and implement SSR processes effectively. Military personnel are highly familiar with hierarchical working procedures, yet SSR processes require dialogue, facilitation, negotiation, and mediation. The necessity of these competences is explained in this training, but participants are also trained to apply such skills in the field.

Police

The police (together with the military) is a traditional area of involvement in security sector reform. Nations aiming to reform their police forces often rely on a mentoring, advising, and training role of foreign police personnel. While international police personnel has specific technical, administrative, and strategic knowledge, their SSR tasks in third countries requires additional training aiding them to become supporters rather than ‘do-ers’ in an SSR process. This course provides these actors with the additional knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to safeguard local ownership and implement SSR processes effectively. Police personnel are highly familiar with hierarchical working procedures, yet SSR processes require dialogue, facilitation, negotiation, and mediation. The necessity of these competences is explained in this training, but participants are also trained to apply such skills in the field.

Several studies and official EU-documents have recognized the process of Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation as crucial for a peace-building process within various stages. Third-party intervention in situations of human conflicts has a long history and a wide variety of forms and functions. A common response to resolve conflicts between parties is to enter into negotiations in order to reach a mutually acceptable agreement - mediation intends to facilitate the negotiation process. In addition, the report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy mentions that “Preventing threats from becoming sources of conflict early on must be at the heart of our approach. Peacebuilding and long-term poverty reduction are essential to this. Each situation requires coherent use of our instruments, including political, diplomatic, development, humanitarian, crisis response, economic and trade co-operation,¬¬ and civilian and military crisis management. We should also expand our dialogue and mediation capacities.”

The EU has recognized the need of “Mediation and Dialogue” capabilities and has introduced the document “Concept on Strengthening EU Mediation and Dialogue Capacities”. It’s clearly stated in this document that “The EU, as a global actor, committed to the promotion of peace, democracy, human rights and sustainable development, is generally seen as a credible and ethically reliable actor in situations of instability and conflict and is thus well placed to mediate, facilitate or support mediation and dialogue processes.” Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation processes are important and appropriate tools for peacebuilding and prevention.

Trainees will acquire the necessary skills which will enable them to implement the necessary mediation, dialogue and/or negotiation process at the strategic, operational and tactical level and to contribute to a successful implementation of mandates in Peacebuilding processes while respecting the personal style of the involved parties. Through this course trainees will learn about the communication process in general (sender- receiver) and analyse their competencies within this communication process. They will be able to distinguish between different communications techniques (i.e. active listening, feedback) including the ability how to apply these techniques in different communication processes. Furthermore trainees will learn about the specific elements of a cross-cultural communication, be able to identify overlaps between personality differences and multiple perspectives and how to put forward these overlaps successfully.

Since interpreters are in between the sender and receiver within a cross-cultural communication, trainees will recognize the role and the proper use of interpreters and learn how to transfer this knowledge to a successful cross-cultural communication process. Trainees will identify the meaning/definition of Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation and recognize their usefulness in various states of the Peacebuilding process. They will be able to foster diagnostic skills for what to do when on site. At the end trainees will be able to apply these skills into practice.

The EU has recognized the need for these soft skills and has put adequate normative guidelines in place as well as relevant training courses. The personnel involved in Conflict Prevention and Peace Building generally have a good knowledge in the relevant field of operation – mission specific requirements are tested by a competency-based examination or during a job interview, but there is only a little focus on soft skills, such as communication, negotiation, mediation, gender and cultural awareness. As peacekeeping has grown into a multidimensional phenomenon, enhancing the training of peacekeepers in effective skills for working with conflict and assisting parties in dispute to manage and resolve conflicts constructively is crucial. Personnel deployed in a mission will be able to work more effectively with a developed set of soft skills and will more likely avoid future conflicts or risks.

The training relevance of Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation is not limited to a specific type or phase of the mission. These techniques are part of the daily activities of an effective mission performance. Based on the mandate of a mission/operation the OPLAN (Operations Plan) and the job description within the respective call for contributions, the technical capacities and skills needed for successful mandate implementation are defined. In the Handbook on CSDP Missions Mediation and Dialogue skills are seen as critical by CSDP mission staff in their day-to-day work and cover the whole range of the conflict cycle (preventive diplomacy, management, resolution or transformation). Additionally, many missions engage in informal dialogue and sometimes dispute resolution at the working level. According to the fact sheet of the European Union Mediation Support Team Mediation these skills are already demanded in the phase of the preventive diplomacy: “Mediation is an integral part of the EU preventive diplomacy and a vital component of the EU’s comprehensive toolbox for conflict prevention and peacebuilding”.

The target audience consists of persons who want or will be deployed to peacebuilding and prevention missions and/or activities. This includes members of the EEAS or public servants coming from various fields (defence, justice, diplomatic, police), military establishments of EU Member States (and Third States), members of NGOs as well as free lancers.

Trainers/Training institutions should consider inclusion of sub-curricula on Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation when:

  • providing core skills training for mission deployment / pre-deployment training
  • providing training for field personnel and political officers / civil society organizations working in areas affected by armed conflict, in post-war / stabilization phases, and communities and countries ‘at risk’ / experiencing instability or risk of armed conflict and violence.
  • Sub-curricula on Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation can be important for both entry-level, first deployment training as well as for experienced personnel and field officers and organizational, diplomatic or mission leadership.

Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation skills are required competencies for certain positions since these qualifications are a precondition for a successful mandate implementation. Missions / organizations should consider or prioritize this sub-curriculum:

  • for all personnel deployed in areas affected by, at risk of, or recovering from an armed conflict, violence or instability
  • for officers and organizational/mission leadership

Advanced/more thorough, comprehensive and deep-skills training in Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation should be provided for:

  • mediation teams/support teams working on high level (Track 1, Track 1.5, Track 2) peace negotiations, peace talks, and dialogue processes
  • international and national teams involved in supporting development/creation of local, national and regional architecture and ‘infrastructure for peace’
  • field/mission personnel, local authorities and civil society organizations directly involved in community-based or national mediation and dialogue processes

One would ask why mediation skills and the other adjacent dialoguing methods, like open dialogue and negotiation, should be included in peace teaching after basics were already delivered in general preparatory curricula. After all, these competencies are represented by diverse civil professions for dealing with conflict in a world, in which people try to overcome their differences while the life around them is more or less stable. In case of tensions in a region and turbulent times and even more so when wars tend to break out or have broken out, people do not want to negotiate, but for their own sake they have to get along somehow, as there are common interests and tasks to be fulfilled for every day survival, like electricity lines need to work, water supply is essential, etc.

When on site, one is confronted with tensions that can break out any time – and sometimes they can spread rapidly. Knowledge about the complexity of conflict dimensions, attitudes towards bringing forth possible cross lines and skills to turn escalating ladders into two way climbing possibilities might be of help. In everyday living between dividing lines, in managing the life together between people of different heritage and origin, language and cultural embeddedness, of different missions and nations, it is to be expected that diverse ideas of how to handle situations, how to understand a conflict, how to be used to handle crises, etc. build on many contradictory traditions and identities (what is normal, i.e. how one and one´s reference group, tradition, law, etc. is used to handle them). In collaborating on site that aspects might clash naturally - on very basic and very abstract identity forming levels.

Understanding by one’s own experience as how easily conflicts can start very early on, understanding the escalation ladder of conflicts and how situations can build up after having got stuck can help to get out of hot spots and find areas where mutual understanding or at least listening can arise again. One of the core competences is to grasp the dimensions of a conflict and its destructive, but also constructive dimensions: intellectual, rational, emotional, psychological, and social and its identity forming dimension.

Understanding the ‘creation of an enemy’ when own needs cannot be met, when own values are threatened and when time is scarce to sort or wait it out, can help to step out and try to find ways to reach out to other people again, to start collaborating again, even after one thinks one cannot accept the other person’s values, behaviour, etc. any more. It is that protective function of conflict that creates distance, but that can be reached in other ways also that are less destructive to the opponents.

In such a course it is important to learn more than just the principles and its philosophy of communication and communication skills. The factual dynamics, which might develop after addressing core disagreements, need to be handled and modulated. One should learn in this curriculum the competence of soft intervening as a natural habit. The best learning path is through exercises where people can switch sides, reflect on their own emotions and change in attitudes towards the other role players and by observing others and afterwards to reflect upon it. In training one can easily stop and ask what was meant, intended and what one would have needed for the prevention of escalation. There are many exercises that utilize experiences in the group, role plays, and case studies. One automatically realizes that dealing with conflict is not only an academic task, it requires the presence of the person totally. One gets training in own readiness to reflect and to build on that for learning to be ready to make a break, step out and try to intervene in a constructive way, avoiding labelling and taking power positions.

One can acquire skills for handling difficult situations and can learn to de-escalate situations. By testing the role one might get more insight in the dynamics of the situation and how careful one needs to become to stay neutral, to value the persons and their attitudes and their intentions and not stigmatizing, labelling, taking possession of the solutions by overruling people. At the advanced levels, complex handling of intellectual, emotional and social aspects of situations itself, of each involved person while watching also the broader context might be focussed. We understand that in a conflict much can be shaken and uncertainty spreads like weeds. Understanding how conflicts are addressed within local/cultural/traditional ways and approaches can help improve operational effectiveness.

The more advanced participants might already be able to manage the fine tuning of very complex situations and create atmospheres and opportunities that can lead to some success to find sustainable solutions for all involved - a high undertaking! The more advanced the more aspects can be handled. Just to mention gender - as not only the very person in front of us is under scrutiny, but also his/her social dialogues, the identity forming stigmas that feed into conflicts as much as traditions on society level and on individual and family level. Is one´s masculinity under scrutiny? Is the family pride attacked? Is the cultural identity threatened? Those aspects need to be considered as well, while the content of the fight is dealing with the last night´s exchange of bad words. One can even go to the political level and the heritage of the fighting groups, reference groups, clans, peoples, states etc. as many aspects could have been shaken up.

One can take care of the influence and use of media, the public opinion and its influence when handling situations and considering also the loss of reputation when crossing lines towards so called enemies. Here all types of skills on analysing conflicts on many levels and how they can be dealt with in a constructive way without losing sight on the immediate focus the involved persons want to address, come into the picture. And in times of conflict, time is precious.

Participants might learn about different habits to express conflicts and disagreements and different ways to bring them on the table. While some cultures prefer face saving dialogues, others want to have the words as clear on the table as possible and would not move before people admit mistakes. Others might never agree to anything after having been ‘forced’ to admit. Emphasizing differences in the approaches might prepare people well for field work.

The following sub-curricula may be directly linked to the Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation sub-curricula when developing more comprehensive training programmes or seeking to integrate in development of core competencies and operational capabilities in this field:

  • Pre-Deployment/Mission Preparation Training
  • Civil and Military Coordination (CIMIC)
  • Crisis Management
  • Armed Violence/Armed Conflict Prevention
  • Women and Peacebuilding/Prevention/Peace-making curricula
  • Trainings and sub-curricula relating to specific conflict issues / dimensions, e.g.
    • Managing/handling land disputes
    • Managing/handling conflicts over natural resources
    • Facilitating Mediation/Talks/Peace Processes between conflict parties
    • Security Sector Reform/Development

Module 1: One could build on the knowledge about communication and cross-cultural communication processes in general and some information about facilitating dialogue, mediation and negotiation, when delivering module 1.

Applying communication techniques, like active listening, feedback, diverse forms of questioning, dealing with deadlocks and providing skills for leading heated debates in their future missions could be the relevant content of this module. The main task in exercises might be to become aware of “barriers” in cross-cultural communication and how to overcome them by using techniques of facilitating dialogue, mediation, negotiation.

Communication becomes immediately more complex when people do not speak the same language or cannot refer to a common language and similar cultural embeddedness. While being aware that communication is an act of transferring information from one person (sender) to another person (receiver), one has to still consider that very often there is one more person in between in deployment: the interpreter/translator. And even when having a third common language – in case of tensions, one loses the confidence in expressing well or listening well in a foreign language. One needs a middle wo/man, who himself/herself also belongs to a reference group, who also is a “foreigner”, “enemy”, “one of us” projecting some unavoidable shade on the communication process on all sides. With that in mind the module should consider that triangle on many levels, when it comes to exercises, demonstrations, case studies. It is often said that mediators take care of frictions in communication, smoothing them out and finding ways to overcome. This challenge is one that the interpreters, among others, are faced with as well, but in a different way and with different intentions – both have to be careful to not compete but lead towards overcoming differences, what is the main job of a dialogue leader, mediator, negotiator in which the interpreter becomes a significant helper. Both professionals have to work it out how to collaborate and who takes care of what so that communication processes can materialize Dialogue, Mediation, and Negotiation. Complex and contradictory attributions of the role of a interpreter and the instrumentalism of interpreters lead to questions, as:

  • What is the responsibility of whom? Local ownership respected? Is interpreter empowered to do his/her job to make sure messages get across in both ways? Is interpreter accepted by all parties?
  • Can or should interpreters take responsibility outside of the roles ascribed to them? And how is that made transparent? How can this responsibility be defined that no negative feedback loop starts?
  • Interpreters are not only “switching” the language, they are part of the interaction between persons what might increase potential conflicts, might provide important interpersonal information, or contribute to manipulation, chaos and confusion. Interpretation of non-verbal gestures of your local counterpart might not be a reliable source either, as non-verbal communication is full of local hues. The responsibility for communicating cannot be transferred to the interpreter. How to handle these new lines can be a major topic in the module.

Another aspect in this module is transfer of good practice, of ‘technical issues’: how to take care of good working/dialoguing conditions. It might need more breaks, short sentences, more loops and repetitions to make sure everyone has similar understanding, etc. One needs to take care that the interpreter might not slip into other jobs and tasks, as that could create turmoil in the long run and one loses interpreters and the trust of the others. Transfer of lessons learnt helps that one does not make the same mistakes again.

Module 2: After the core elements are taught, one could focus on the skills that the deployed persons could deliver in the field on an almost daily basis - the utilization of “Mediation, Dialogue, Negotiation” principles and its fine tuning: when to use what. Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation are all dealing with conflict, and provide different strategies and tools for different stages of a peacebuilding process. It is important to know which approach has to be used during which phase of the peacebuilding process. Participants can learn how to diagnose the readiness of the partners to move forward or rather to defend. Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation are positioned as per the intent of the parties involved. When still positioning and fighting, negotiation might not reach results but perhaps useful compromises for a while, while starting to dialogue might smoothen out the intensity / escalation of the conflict. When parties are ready to at least give the position of the other parties a chance to be shown, mediation could be implemented.

The participants should be able to be sensitive for exclusion of any kind and care for/ intervene towards inclusion, empowerment, and local ownership. The women movements have made us sensitive towards misusing hierarchy and power games for short solutions. Participants should be able to identify destructive power games and provide intervention skills for leading back to dialoguing so that all important stakeholders can participate, voices can get heard and that local ownership is not threatened. It is also necessary that they search for who the relevant ‘stakeholders’ for the very concern may be.

The learning objectives could be:

  • understanding the process “Mediation” and its different phases and being able to administer at the right time
  • understanding the process and the role of a “Dialogue” and become able to administer when necessary
  • understanding the process “Negotiation” and its potential impact and be able to use it
  • understanding differences/relations of these techniques
  • being able to switch between the skills necessary in the very situation

Building on the core competences of module 1 the delivery of these methods for potentially difficult situations in the fields could already be managed by participants. Exercises help to transfer the knowledge towards the practical level and the many shades of practice. Concrete feedback when exercising helps to intensify learning steps. The three methods can be a useful skill for the deployed person to handle dangerous situations while respecting the limits of each side and taking care of security and dignity of all. Being capable of handling all these techniques when necessary could also protect the deployed in their missions - in addition to slowly getting the parties out of helplessness/anger.

Module 3: The final goal of many missions will be to strengthen and support locally and nationally led dialogue/mediation/negotiation processes and building/developing capacities within the local staff for their capacities to handle disagreements, problems and the like. Deployment also functions as a role model. With that in mind, the advanced/master level might be directed towards building stages for managing Dialogue, Mediation, and Negotiation process and caring for the preliminary steps and afterwards for the implementation of the reached results. The learning objectives of this level could be to build a concept on how to go about locally that main issues can be dealt with, that new ideas can come about and be discussed, that options can be obtained with the involved people and lead towards the results that can be positioned in a way that they become sustainable on a larger scale or perhaps also very valuable – that they can come to at least understanding of each other´s differences and respecting distance, so that life can continue its path.

Careful analysis of what could be under scrutiny helps to manage situations. One can learn from the field: reviewing case studies on specific conflicts and Dialogue/Mediation/Negotiation processes which have been used to address them as well as ‘lessons identified’ – ‘good’ and ‘bad’ practices. One is aware that the local ownership is especially important in times of conflict as people want to get their hands back on their lives; they want to be heard and respected as much as possible and be agents of their lives and life circumstances, one can assume. When in times of Dialogue, Mediation, Negotiation the emphasis is on definitions of the issue in question, ideas and possible solutions of and by the involved persons, respecting the principle of neutrality and valuing local ownership; furthermore, it is crucial to give start up help to the locals to take over again, to regain empowerment.

Module 3 is directed towards helping the locals to manage themselves by strengthening / supporting / developing local and national architecture and ‘infrastructure for peace’, creating a useful conflict culture, including:

  • Local Mediation/Peace Committees
  • National Peace Council
  • Offices of the President/Parliament/communities for supporting mediation and peace processes – or embedding such capacities in national ministries and perhaps building on traditional ways of conflict resolving initiatives
  • Taking care of the victims, installing trauma centres, dialogue forums, and the like
  • in the long run, possibilities to healing of memories

Finally the representatives, NGOs and civil society will again find forms to manage their concerns with each other and with those who influence their wellbeing. In this module, ideas can be discussed regarding various ways to get them started.

Beginner / Entry
Entry/beginner level courses and trainings on Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation should focus on ensuring participants have core knowledge, understanding and awareness of what mediation, dialogue and negotiation are; their relevance and importance to achieving mission mandate and implementing peacebuilding and prevention support; handling the need of interpreters; core (introductory/basic) skills for effective communication and understanding how to engage with mediation, dialogue and negotiation and effective communication in different cultural contexts / settings. Focus should include demonstrations, simulations, exercises and then reflecting by role players and observers.
Intermediate / Advanced
Intermediate/advanced courses should go more in-depth into understanding different models, approaches, tools and processes in Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation. Greater exploration of lessons identified and what can lead to success or breakdown and collapse of processes is important. Advanced courses may also include more in-depth case studies as well as more thorough / extensive exercising and simulations of mediation, dialogue and negotiation processes and key skills for effective MDN support and process facilitation. Key issues such as managing a mediation process, engaging with parties, handling effective communication in MDN processes and implementing results and agreements should be addressed more thoroughly. Advanced courses should also go more in-depth into how to implement effective coordination and complementarity with the breadth of stakeholders and institutions that may be involved in MDN processes. Participants should engage in simulations/role plays and be ready to modulate their performances after feedback and coaching.
Expert / Specialisation
Expert/Specialization courses may go into advanced practice of Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation; specialized application to specific fields, situations and conflict issues such as:
  • Mediation in prevention of armed conflict
  • Mediating land disputes
  • Mediation of natural resource disputes
  • Mediation of cease-fires
  • Mediation of Peace Agreements
  • Mediation and Security Sector Reform/Development
  • The use of Scenario Development and Futures Forecasting in MDN processes
  • Help to build local structures and competencies for peacebuilding. Key areas to be addressed in expert/specialization level courses should also include gender and inclusion in MDN, how to effectively strengthen, develop and support local and national capacities and implementation and follow-through in peace consolidation. Expert levels may also include more coaching, mentoring, technical assistance and backstopping for actual implementation of MDN processes. Fine tuning and deep reflection of the impact of interventions is also an important component of the process as well as lessons learnt from prior work.

Peace and Conflict Sensitivity: MDN processes should be grounded in rigorous peace and conflict analysis to ensure processes are appropriately designed and are addressing critical conflict issues/factors. Implementation of MDN engagements without prior thorough peace and conflict analysis of stakeholder, issues, needs and outcomes mapping should be clearly recognized and understood as bad/unacceptable practice in the field today. Peace and Conflict analysis should also include identification of local capacities, various on-going peace efforts, and build on principles, practices and values within the society/affected groups that are involved in MDN.

Cultural Appropriateness: Training curricula should be developed to ensure participants are learning MDN attitudes, skills and knowledge appropriate for the specific cultural and social context in which they are engaging. Trainings/courses which teach skills or approaches to MDN which are entirely foreign or do not fit or apply to the specific context in question are inappropriate.

Gender: Implementing gender perspectives throughout all phases of a mediation process is crucial to its sustainability and its efficiency. Excluding women from the process could lead to missing out their needs, interests, priorities, capacities and vulnerabilities – and their valuable contributions. “As men and women tend to have different negotiation styles, the inclusion of women also ensures a broader path towards overcoming conflict, and a diverse set of mediation skills is to be used in the process.” Training institutions and deployment agencies should proactively engage to ensure that:

  • curricula activities include the gender-dimensions of MDN and conflict
  • participant groups include strong female participation and representation
  • trainer teams and speakers/experts who may be included in programmes should be gender-balanced/inclusive

Special content may be included to address specific gender-dimensions of MDN, and specialization and advanced programmes may focus on issues such as ensuring female engagement and participation in MDN processes as well as how to handle gender-dimensions of conflicts in peace talks and mediation and not to forget to include female issues within peacebuilding.

Trauma Care: It is important for participants to understand how trauma can impact upon MDN processes – including both individual and community affecting trauma of parties involved in the process as well as own past traumas of participants in the training which may affect how they perceive, experience, relate to parties and engage in the process. Techniques and methods exist which can assist in helping parties address the impacts/effects of trauma to unblock their hindering engagement in MDN processes. Participants should also be aware of how trauma resulting from the dynamics and experience of conflicts and violence are issues in the broader context that may need to be taken up and addressed/handled appropriately (and with care) in the MDN process. Failure to acknowledge or even identify and understand these issues has been a challenge in past processes affecting popular legitimacy and trust in the process, agreements and outcomes.

Local Ownership: To achieve a sustainable peace agreement the mediation process has to be under local ownership – the decision-makers are the parties not the mediators. It has to be made clear that mediators/negotiators/dialogue facilitators are not solving conflicts - they are facilitators only. Local ownership is highly respected by these methods. External mediators “can only play an advisory role, facilitating discussions and protecting the process from undue influence from other external actors.” The mediators can keep the dialogue going while the participants already would give up dealing directly with each other. Curricula should also engage directly with:

  • identifying and understanding traditional approaches, practices and cultural / social values relating to mediation, peace processes and handling conflicts, disputes and violence
  • mapping/identifying local capacities for peace, mediation, dialogue and negotiation and understanding how these are engaging or can be engaged to support MDN
  • transferring the role of external actors to supporting/assisting and helping to develop/empower regional, national and/or locally owned peace process engagement and development of domestic MDN capacities in countries of engagement.

Local ownership: It is important to address issues such as ensuring inclusion and voice / participation of communities that may traditionally be left out of mediation, negotiation and peace processes. Here community-based participation in MDN may help, and development of parallel/complementing key stakeholders and civil population to participate and engage in peacemaking, prevention and peace consolidation.

Do No Harm & Conflict No Sensitivity: ‘Do Harm’ requires the mediator to avoid conducting the process in a way that causes harm to the conflict parties, including women and other stakeholders, or in a way that exacerbates the conflict. Unintended negative effects of mediation and dialogue facilitation efforts can be minimized by implementing a conflict sensitive approach according to the ‘Do No Harm’ principle. This includes maintaining a thorough and continuous analysis of the conflict and the impact of the mediator’s activities, as well as continuously adapting the mediation strategy in accordance with the impact assessment. Do No Harm and conflict sensitivity also require external actors to be sensitive to how their interventions can impact upon local capacities and dynamics (cf. local ownership above) and include strategies and strict adherence to working to support/strengthen / develop national capabilities. Do No Harm in MDN should also include applying future forecasting and scenario development to the possible risks implied in any mediation, dialogue, negotiation or peace process – including both internal to the process and possible negative impacts on conflict dynamics of particular stakeholders / communities.

Participants should also be rigorously trained in how to identify challenges, obstacles, blocks and factors which can contribute to the failure of MDN processes; ‘bad practices’, and mapping of implementation needs and critical success factors required for agreements to be sustained and implemented. This should also include specific training/modules on how to implement effective prevention of violence and stability in post-agreement phases.

  • European Union, 2008, Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy – Providing Security in a Changing world”, doc S407/08 europa.eu
  • Council of Europe Ministers of Foreign Affairs, 2008, White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue - “Living Together As Equals in Dignity” www.coe.int
  • Council of the EU, 2009, Concept on Strengthening EU Mediation and Dialogue Concepts, doc 15779/09 European Union, 2014, Factsheet on the EU mediation support team. eeas.europa.eu
  • European Union, 2015, Handbook on CSDP missions, page 96 eeas.europa.eu
  • OSCE, 2015, Mediation and Dialogue Facilitation in the OSCE www.osce.org
  • OSCE, Conflict and Prevention Center, Mediation and Dialogue facilitation in the OSCE, www.osce.org
  • OSCE, 2012, Developing Guidance for Effective Mediation, www.osce.org
  • OSCE, 2011, Perspectives of the UN & Regional Organizations on Preventive And Quiet Diplomacy, Dialogue Facilitation and Mediation, www.osce.org
  • ECDPM, 2012, Study on EU lessons learnt in mediation and dialogue - Glass half full, ecdpm.org
  • B. Austin, M. Fischer, H.J. Giessmann (eds.) 2011. Advancing Conflict Transformation. The Berghof Handbook II. Opladen/Framington Hills: Barbara Budrich Publishers. www.berghof-handbook.net
  • Karin Göldner-Ebenthal and Veronique Dudout, 2017, From Power Mediation to Dialogue Support? Assessing the EU’s Capabilities for Multi-Track Diplomacy. Research Report. Berlin: Berghof Foundation Fisher, J. Ronald, 2010, Methods of Third Party Intervention www.berghof-foundation.org
  • Nansenskolen, 2009, in Irene Incerti-Théry Master’s thesis in Peace and Conflict Transformation – May 2016 munin.uit.no
  • GAP – Gaming for Peace (EU Project), 2017, Gaps in Gender Awareness and Cultural Competence in Peacekeeping Missions gap-project.eu
  • Initiative for Peacebuilding, 2009, IFP Mediation Cluster - Engaging the EU in Mediation and Dialogue www.ictj.org
  • Gerda Mehta, Klaus Rueckert (Hg) Mediation. Instrument der Komnfliktregelung und Dienstleistung. Falterverlag2008
  • Falko von Ameln, Peter Heintel: Macht in Organisationen. Denkwerkzeuge für Führung, Beratung und Change Management. Schäffer Poeschel 2016
  • Gerda Mehta, Klaus Rückert: Mediation und Demokratie. CarlAuer Systemeverlage 2003

This multi-stakeholder training puts practical skills development, development of the right ‘attitudes’ for effective mediation, negotiation and dialogue facilitation, and learning by doing at the centre of the learning experience. Besides important theoretical input, module 1 and module 2 would be built upon participants’ reflection on their role, principles and dilemmas and on their capacity to identify the possible nexus among different stakeholders and develop strategies to overcome challenges. For that purpose, analysis of ‘real case’ scenarios and group discussions as well as experience sharing are helpful tools.

Module 3 would conclude with a role play that would allow participants to put in practice the skills gained in module 1 and 2. Ideally the role play should be video-taped. The role play/exercise is observed by experienced trainers and the remaining participants. This exercise should be designed to provide participants a mentored opportunity to explore their personal capacities as a negotiator/mediator and to apply their learning to a relevant international peace building simulated scenario. A feedback process (using the video-taped role play) would ensure immediate response and the opportunity to self-reflect on the performance. The result of the role play should be discussed in groups (feedback role players, observers) and finalized with a lessons learned exercise. Simulations could help to consider contributing to initiatives of peacebuilding by locals and help them how to go about it.

In order to ensure the sub-curriculum fosters participants’ operational and performance capacities effectively, trainings should include:

  • Content Briefings which can be developed ‘lecture’/presentation style or through participants engaging to develop briefings on core topics
  • Review of Lessons Learned from successful and ‘failed’ mediation processes and actual experiences from mediation processes - which can be provided through expert speakers, case studies, videos and film documentaries and reflective practices and mission analysis drawing upon participants’ own experiences
  • ‘Real case’ and ‘probable’ scenarios engaging participants to develop practical responses and strategies for how to deal with challenges in mediation and negotiation processes
  • Exercises to apply core principles of mediation processes (i.e. implementing gender perspectives, dealing with war criminals/terrorists (impartiality of the process vs. international law))
  • Comprehensive simulation exercise and role play addressing actual situations experienced or likely/possible to experience in the field, where participants perform the roles of members of a (low/mid/high level) mediation team supporting a notable individual who is leading the overall process. This would help participants to test and deepen their skills and to better understand and recognise also the specific dynamics, emotions and challenges involved in the mediation process.
  • • Testimonies provided by former fighters and conflict parties or parties of a mediation process (such as politicians) can be powerful elements in a training. They can help to gain a better understanding on topics like ‘identity in/after a conflict’, ‘dealing with deadlocks’. These experiences/stories can also be recorded and shared/used as videos in courses. In cases of engaging with testimonials, ‘do no harm’ and ‘conflict sensitivity’ principles and practices are essential and should be respected and effectively implemented.

Trainers should ensure that the methodologies and materials are highly practical and are able to develop not only participants’ knowledge and understanding but also their actual capabilities and the necessary skills and supporting attitudes which can enable effective implementation in the field. At the end, the participants should be able to contribute to a successful implementation of the mandates in Peacebuilding processes due to the ability to apply their mediation, dialogue and negotiation skills at the (political) strategic, operational and tactical level while respecting the personal styles of the involved parties.

There are discussions at the frontier of diverse psychological ways to dissolve conflict by more reflective methods. The debate continues, if these methods are a distortion of the process or actually still helpful for increasing awareness of the nature of conflict by the parties involved. Usually it needs much awareness rising before the traditional dialogue/negotiation/mediation skills can be performed. Setting the ground needs to administer the same principles, and often is a major portion of the whole process and is worth the effort, even though the involved parties might not favour the step towards dealing directly with each other. In this phase awareness raising of the conflict nature might be the right orientation.

In-Depth Simulations: Full-scale in-depth simulations addressing actual conflict situations and peace processes have also been developed recently – helping both to improve trainees’ skills for handling / dealing with specific conflict issues and dynamics in MDN processes and to be able to better identify and attune participants to potential opportunities, openings, risks and challenges that they may experience in MDN.

Use of Future Forecasting and Scenario Development: In recent years, practitioners and trainers have also increasingly recognised the importance of future forecasting and scenario development in MDN processes – both as an instrument that can be applied effectively in the process (the Mont Fleur process in the peace talks in South Africa) and as a tool for identifying both future opportunities and risks that can affect peace talks and post-agreement peace consolidation.

Trauma Handling and Resilience in MDN: Fruitful work has also been developed showing how trauma handling and resilience techniques can be integrated into MDN processes to better enable parties to engage effectively and constructively and work towards collaborative solutions. Few trainers or MDN practitioners are currently equipped with these skills/capacities, and this is an important area of innovation and further development in the field.

Infrastructure for Peace (I4P) and Insider Trusted Mediators: Perhaps the most important developments in recent years in the field is the increasing focus on building, supporting, developing standing ‘infrastructure’ and institutional capacities for mediation, dialogue, negotiation, peacebuilding and prevention in countries of engagement (I4P), to ensure the standing capabilities for nationally appropriate and effective MDN exist and are in place to help address conflicts, prevent violence, and support peace consolidation. This has paralleled increasing recognition of the importance of focusing on local/national/regional insider trusted mediators rather than ‘external 3rd party actors’ – an approach heavily biased by the external nature of most interventions. Insider trusted mediators may often have greater access, trust, confidence, and understanding to assist MDN processes. External actors should place greater emphasis and value on how to identify and support these domestic/internal actors and approaches. While external 3rd party support and MDN may at times be helpful, the recognition that there needs to be a rebalancing away from intervention-driven approaches and more towards development of sustainable national and local capabilities is an important frontier for the field.

The following approaches which can be integrated into trainings or complementary to trainings can assist development or improvement of capacity for Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation:

  • Peer intervision facilities or supervision possibilities while being on site helps for better performances. It should be discussed how to organize that for the field work ahead of times being in the field.
  • E-learning/preparation and pre-study of relevant publications: might ensure that certain definitions are known already.
  • Sensitivity training: make trainees aware of group dynamics, their own behaviour and their role within a group.
  • Case Studies: analyse/inquiry a mediation, dialogue, negotiation process within a real-life context (based i.e. on real case, handled by meditation, dialogue and negotiation processes).
  • Role plays: deepen both the practical knowledge and the self-assessment within a mediation, dialogue and negotiation process (adequate time for role play, feedback and reflection).
  • Single or Multi-Sectorial/Multi-Stakeholder Field-based simulations and response exercises: field-based simulations and exercises to prepare for specific mediation/dialogue and negotiation scenarios which may be faced in the field, is one of the most effective ways of improving capacities of personnel.
Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Course Title Link to Course Outline (if available) Link to Relevant Publications / Resources / Handbooks / Toolkits used in the course (if available)
International Peace and Development Training Centre (IPDTC) Making Mediation & Peace Processes Work www.patrir.ro -
ESDC Mediation, Negotiation and Dialogue Skills for CSDP” eeas.europa.eu Getting to Yes, Roger Fisher and William Ury, Bruce Patton (Editor)
ESDC A Comprehensive Approach to Gender in Operations eeas.europa.eu -
ESDC Gender Integration in CSDP eeas.europa.eu -
CEPOL Mentoring, Monitoring and Advising (MMA) www.cepol.europa.eu -
ASPR IPT Core Course for Peacebuilders www.friedensburg.at -
ZIF Supporting Peace Negotiation and Mediation on Track I: Implementing Comprehensive Peace Agreements www.zif-berlin.org -
CEDR Mediator Skills Training www.cedr.com www.cedr.com
Folke Bernadotte Academy Facilitation of Dialogue Processes and Mediation Efforts fba.se -
Folke Bernadotte Academy Gender Adviser Course fba.se -
Title Organisation / Institution Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
Guidance for Effective Mediation UN 2012 peacemaker.un.org
Managing a mediation process USIP 2008 www.usip.org
Study on EU lessons learnt on mediation and dialogue ECDPM 2012 ecdpm.org

Civilian / NGO

For civilians or personnel of a Non-Governmental Organisation, training in Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation can be crucial to be able to take part in a peace process as an equal component next to representatives of the government or political parties. As an important part of a peace building process the civil societies – or their representatives – and NGOs need to be able to communicate their positions effectively. Training on Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation enhances communication and conflict skills to enable civil society to communicate their interests and goals while actively listening and understanding the interests and goals of the other stakeholders (such as military and police).

EEAS / Diplomats / Civil Servants

The Peacebuilding as a long process is aimed to prevent armed outbreaks of conflicts, to end conflicts with the objective to end violence and to reach a peace agreement and the post conflict phase which can be divided into two phases: the immediate aftermath of armed conflict (1-5 years) and the period after (5-10 years). Diplomates and members of EEAS and similar organizations are expected to provide diplomatic support to each phase of a peacebuilding process by bringing its political weight to bear when required and requested. The diplomatic strategies to effect changes that can be applied jointly or in parallel are negotiation, mediation and dialogue. Therefore, it is important to know:

  • which interpersonal and technical skills are necessary to be a good mediator and negotiator and how to lead a successful dialogue
  • ability to analyse which of these tools might be used in which phase of the peacebuilding process

Military / Armed Forces

For military staff, especially, but not only, leadership, training on mediation, dialogue and negotiation can be beneficial as they should be included in the peace process – i.e. a mediation process. The primary responsibility for monitoring and verification of a ceasefire agreement can be placed on the conflict parties (including the military) themselves, as part of a Joint Military Commission which can be supported by a third-party. Possibly military personnel from both sides could be working together and emphasise on local responsibility in monitoring and investigating violations. Military staff can be an important factor in de-escalating a conflict and regaining the trust of the civil society, especially by their way of communicating and interacting with civil society. A well-developed set of soft skill is crucial in these situations.

Military officers, who want or will be deployed to peacebuilding and prevention missions and/or activities can benefit from training on mediation, dialogue and negotiation, as it will strengthen their ability to communicate effectively and provide them with the necessary set of soft skills to fulfil their tasks – on all levels of a peace building process.

Police

Police in general have a primary justice function of ensuring basic law and order;[…]; and the establishment of basic law and order is a necessary condition for sustainable reconstruction, in particular for rebuilding the population’s trust in state institutions.

Communication skills and processes such as dialogue, negotiation, and mediation enable police officers to:

  • communicate with each other taking into consideration different cultures
  • to defuse tense situations
  • to understand each other’s interests

Therefore, police officers, who want or will be deployed to peacebuilding and prevention missions and/or activities can benefit from training on mediation, dialogue and negotiation as it will strengthen their ability to communicate effectively and provide them with the necessary set of soft skills to fulfil their tasks – on all levels of a peace building process. As international police officers should act as role-models in their behaviour, including their way of communicating with others, training on mediation, dialogue and negotiation is important and will enable them to reflect on their own ways of communication and offer them important tools of communication.

Introduction

Protection of civilians is defined as “all activities aimed at ensuring full respect for the rights of the individual in accordance with the letter and the spirit of the relevant bodies of law – IHRL, IHL and Refugee Law”. However, the understanding of this mandate and its implementation is different for the multiple actors implied in civilian protection, leading to uncoordinated, incomplete and limited performance, in spite of existing guidance for the development of comprehensive PoC strategies. Civilians remain the main victims of armed conflict and the inability of peacekeeping missions and CPPB programmes to protect them undermines their credibility and legitimacy. There is a need to go beyond the theoretical knowledge of human rights protection instruments (international humanitarian law, international human rights law and refugee law) to learn when to use them and how to operationalize them to improve the protection practice. Moreover, the protection of civilians requires from the timely, flexible and concerted action of all the diverse protection actors present in a given context –from civilians themselves and local government representatives to humanitarian NGOs and peacekeeping forces– that need to understand each other’s responsibilities, mandate limits and capacities to realise protection. Through its multi-stakeholder and comprehensive approach this training in protection of civilians in peacekeeping missions is a milestone in CPPB training aiming at improving cooperation, design measurable protection objectives, and increase local ownership and capacities for protection.

Participants would acquire a thorough understanding of what protection of civilians entails in the context of peacekeeping missions. This includes introducing the varied conceptualisations of the term, the different levels of intervention (responsive, remedial and environment-building) and its implications as a responsibility, an activity, and an objective. Unveiling the diverse array of actors engaged in PoC, their respective roles, working principles, mandates, and the dilemmas they face to fulfil them; together with their different “understandings” of the objective of protection (ensuring the fulfilment of human rights for governmental authorities at national and local level and human rights activists; addressing the threats to civilians for humanitarians and physical safety of civilians for the military). Finally, it defines the subjects of protection, the different normative frameworks that protect them, and the tools to realize protection, how and when to use them (legal instruments, unarmed civilian protection, political advocacy and negotiation, humanitarian assistance, police and military security, etc.)

Through this course participants would build on their competency to effectively coordinate and plan a multi-stakeholder PoC strategy, including the ability to conduct joint assessments, context analysis and planning from a systemic perspective. This learning would focus on how protection activities and programmes of diverse protection stakeholders could feed into each other, reinforcing protection through preventive and reactive measures, and generating a protective environment. Moreover, it would allow trainees to identify clear and measurable protection objectives, following a results-based approach, and to prioritise protection interventions.

Trainees would learn how to foster and boost the participation of local population in PoC planning, documenting civilian protection strategies and protection needs assessments to include them in joint analyses and strategies, and considering the diversity of protection subjects (gender, age, sexual orientation, religion, ethnic affiliation etc.). They will also learn how to establish a systematic data collection, analysis and reporting schemes, and to create information channels to ensure missions accountability, and permanent reflection/evaluation exercises to adapt protection strategies to a dynamic context. Sensitive communication skills will be developed to efficiently inform the population about the protection capacities and scope of peacekeeping missions on the ground, the role and task of every component, and how to manage information to avoid the emergence of unattainable protection expectations.

Currently 94% of existing international peacekeeping missions include protection of civilians in their mandate. For instance, the EU CSDP missions include provisions relevant to the protection of civilians in their mandates –from the provision of security to refugee and IDP camps to supporting the development of a juridical system or the reform of police forces–, although the concept has not been explicitly mentioned in mission documents.

In 2009 the DPKO examined the implementation of the protection of civilians mandate by UN Peacekeeping missions. The main findings of this assessment pointed to a deficient pre-deployment training of troops and police in PoC, but also of the main political and humanitarian representatives of the mission (Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Deputy SRSG, Humanitarian Coordinator), and to the absence of a clear operational guidance to perform an effective mandate. Moreover, a survey on the inclusion of PoC in pre-deployment training of troop contributing countries (TCCs) revealed the need for consistent and good quality training in this field. This training should enable peacekeeping personnel to liaise and coordinate their intervention with other protection actors, within and outside the mission, and to interact with population at risk to provide effective protection.

According to the Council of Europe, the EU is particularly well positioned to develop the required coordinated approach to PoC since its interventions combine military and civilian resources, and additionally the provision of humanitarian and development assistance. In this regard, the 2015 EEAS Concept on Protection of Civilians in EU-led Military Operations aims to achieve coherence and synergy of action with other actors deployed in the field in order to fulfil the missions mandate to protect civilians. Moreover, the EEAS concept includes among its principles the comprehensive engagement with all actors and the definition of a coordination framework to enable protection. This translates into the need to train EU missions’ personnel to respond to a complex environment, understanding the context and prioritising task to optimise protection results. Accordingly, the EU establishes that PoC training should be scenario-base and tailor-made, and include education on international law and standards, conflict analysis and conflict sensitivity competencies, together with violence prevention and mitigation skills.

The multi-stakeholder training for protection of civilians in Peacekeeping missions incorporates all the recent developments in this field – Kigali Principles, Policy on PoC in UN Peacekeeping operations, Implementing Guidelines for Military Components of UN Peacekeeping Missions, ECHO Policy Guidelines for Humanitarian Protection, PoC in EU-led Military Operations Concept, etc. – and respond to the gaps and challenges detected in the operationalization of this mandate. By doing so, it provides the participants with the opportunity to meet their protection counterparts (humanitarians, peacekeeping troops and police, human rights and political affairs officers) in a safe environment and learn how to effectively coordinate their actions to maximize civilian protection.

This sub-curricula is developed for peacekeeping missions with a Protection of Civilians mandate. It should be included in pre-deployment training, but may also be relevant for in mission / during mission training in the case of personnel currently in the field which have not yet addressed this curricula content prior to their deployment. In mission consolidation, drawdown and withdrawal phases, this training may be adjusted to place still greater emphasis on development of national capacities and ownership to ensure effective PoC capacity of national stakeholders and state and security institutions. If needed, this training curriculum could be tailored to specific context, developing PoC scenarios based on a particular mission location.

This training is directed to protection officers and members of the Military, Police, Civilian, Human Rights and Political sections of peacekeeping/crisis management missions with a specific PoC mandate, particularly to those involved in coordination and decision-making. It also appeals to humanitarian and human rights protection personnel, either in agencies or NGOs, in charge of coordination and institutional relations deployed in conflict settings where peacekeeping missions are present. This sub-curricula is specifically design for PoC coordination, although modules 1 to 4 could be tailored to suit the coordination needs of first respondents in the humanitarian/ human rights/ military/ civilian/ political affairs sectors.

This SC should be selected when designing mission preparedness training pre-deployment for peacekeeping missions, or when developing training for policy makers and organisations engaged in CPPB in armed conflict settings where PoC issues are of particular concern and included in peacekeeping missions mandate . If providing training to missions in the field, training institutions/trainers should also assess whether this SC has already been covered for the mission in pre-deployment training. If not, it should be included in field-based / in mission training.

This training is relevant for peacekeeping missions, policy-makers and the breadth of organisations and agencies working in situations of armed conflict where PoC issues are of concern and included in missions’ mandate. Protection of Civilians is a core component of creating a safe and secure environment critical to preventing outbreaks of violence as well as enabling the consolidation of peace after war.

Participatory Context Analysis Participants learn how to document and analyse conflict and peace dynamics through collaborative work, enabling the participation of all stakeholders involved in PoC. From joint assessments of violence and peace dynamics, to a common identification of key actors and the co-design of contingency scenarios and red flags.

Protection Needs and Capacities Assessment Participants learn to identify, collect and analyse information about protection needs and capacities, including in the analysis institutional strengths and weaknesses in terms of protection capacities and the possible complementarities offered by every actor in the protection field.

Multi-stakeholder Planning Ability to design a joint protection strategy with clear and workable prioritisation and sequencing of protection activities among all protection stakeholders. Visualize the feedback loops between protection activities/actions/actors and understand how they support each other achieving greater protection. Development of complex systems thinking to comprehend the relations between actions and outputs, visualizing actors, connections, dynamics, environment and the multiple stressors and relieves in a given situation. This would allow the participants to increase their adaptation and flexibility to respond to uncertain and rapidly changing scenarios.

PoC Monitoring and Evaluation (indicators, tools and methods) Identification of measurable indicators of protection and creation of a consistent permanent monitoring system enabling effective protection.

Intercultural and Intersectional Communication Ability to remain open-minded, avoiding miscommunication, sensitivity, respect and adaptation to local contexts and different institutional cultures (hierarchies, roles, etc.), and cultural rules of communication including nonverbal forms.

Diversity Awareness and Sensitivity Consciousness of diversity elements in protection and the need to reflect on and incorporate civilians’ assorted needs and capacities. Participants are train to develop conflict and trauma sensitivity attitudes and skills to avoid re-victimization and harm.

PoC Conceptualisation and Tools This section addresses one of the core pillars of this sub curricula, including: knowledge of the multiple definitions of protection of civilians and its commonalities, knowledge of the existing instruments to protect civilians, and when and how to use them - operationalizing them in practice. Content should be highly practical and relevant, including also case studies, lessons learned, and simulations in which participants are able to develop and test their skills and capacities for PoC and addressing PoC challenges - creating experience-based learning opportunities.

Responsible data management Learn how to treat respondents with respect and dignity, how to collect information without endangering informants safety and security, and follow an ethical procedure to obtain informed consent, taking into consideration diverse functionality and power dynamics.

Participatory Research Methods Following a participatory research approach, participants learn how to engage community members and enable them to identify, collect and analyse information about their own protection vulnerabilities and capacities. Trainees would learn how to create a representative and diverse community research team, to generate a safe space for communication and information exchange, and to facilitate constructive discussion.

Accountability Engaging affected populations in two-way information-sharing on decisions affecting their well-being, from the beginning to the end of an intervention. This competency is particularly crucial to tackle situations of sexual exploitation and abuse by mission members or other international stakeholders, but also to ensure that the mandate and the capacities of every protection actor are understood by the affected populations and that self-protection strategies are enhanced and not undermine by the intervention.

Information strategic management In every institution there is sensitive information and disclosure limits that may hinder or undermine collaborative and coordinated action. Trainees learn how to work with the available information and advocate for transparency to improve protection outcomes. Moreover, they will learn how to effectively inform the population about the scope and the limits of their mandate considering diversity (functional, gender, age, etc.)

The following sub-curricula may be directly linked to the Multi-Stakeholders Training in Protection of Civilians sub-curricula when developing more comprehensive training programmes or seeking to integrate in development of core competencies and operational capabilities in this field:

  • Civil and Military Coordination (CIMIC)
  • Crisis Management
  • Programme Design and Planning in CPPB

The following modules & content provide a ‘model’ of core modules which should be included when developing PoC training. Trainers / missions may wish to adapt, develop or customise this content to meet the specific needs of missions or specific trainings. These modules may be delivered either in one training or through several trainings designed to develop overall PoC competency. Some modules may also be developed and delivered through online training.

Module 1: Protection of whom? this module describes the range of threats and vulnerabilities faced by civilian populations in conflict and post conflict environments, and defines the objectives, the limitations and the challenges of protection in the framework of UN peacekeeping operations.

Module 2: Whose protection? the module explores the conceptual evolution of protection of civilians in conflict settings by sharing and examining the multiple definitions (divergences and complementarities), principles, experiences, dilemmas, limitations and achievements of those international stakeholders engaged in PoC present in the training and/or in the area of operation and relevant to PoC implementation.

Module 3: Protection tools and methods the learning objective of this module is to go beyond the theoretical knowledge of protection legal instruments (IHL, IHRL and refugee law) to explore other conventional and unconventional tools and methods for protection, learning how and under which circumstances they could be applied. More importantly, trainees will develop the necessary skills to collect data on human rights violations while ensuring the protection, confidentiality and security of informants. In addition, participants would learn how to manage communication efficiently to avoid misunderstanding among protection actors and between the latter and civilians.

Module 4: Local ownership, participation and accountability his module prepares peacebuilding practitioners to put the local civilians at the centre of their protection strategies. Participants would develop their capacity to analyse how the local civilian population understand protection, which are their protection strategies and capacities considering diversity, and how these can be enhanced and supported by international protection actors. Trainees would also learn how to detect “negative” protection strategies (prostitution, smuggling, etc.) and face the dilemmas emerging from civilians’ self-protection. Moreover, participants would learn how to establish the mechanism to enable mission’s accountability towards civilians in order to detect potential situations of abuse (sexual exploitation, corruption, etc.) and protection gaps.

Module 5: Multi-stakeholder PoC planning and evaluation the goal of this module is to train participants in collaborative design of protection strategies. Trainees would jointly identify present and potential threats and perpetrators, define common protection objectives, create realistic scenarios for contingency planning and elaborate a comprehensive and adaptive protection strategy. This would allow for a sequencing and intercalation of protection activities in order to reinforce civilian protection countering those threats, reducing vulnerability and increasing capacities in order to generate a protective environment. Moreover, they will learn to define indicators able to measure the accomplishment of protection goals.

    Module 1: Protection to whom? PoC in the context of Peacekeeping missions

  • Identifying civilians in need of protection
  • Threats and protection needs
  • Scenarios and types of violence
  • PoC mandate in peacekeeping missions: scope and limitations

    Module 2: Whose protection? Who is who and who does what in PoC

  • The state, the international community and the Responsibility to Protect
  • Humanitarian protection – principles, capabilities and dilemmas
  • Human rights protection – principles, capabilities and dilemmas
  • Police protection – principles, capabilities and dilemmas
  • Military protection – principles, capabilities and dilemmas
  • Case study: A common ground for PoC

    Module 3: Protection tools and methods: when and how to apply them

  • PoC dimensions: responsive, remedial and environment-building protection activities
  • Political advocacy and negotiations
  • Legal instruments, advocacy and rights violations reporting
  • Policing and public safety
  • Use of force and SSR
  • Emergency aid
  • Unarmed civilian protection
  • Communication and information as a protection tool

    Module 4: Local ownership, participation and accountability in PoC

  • Civilian protection capacities and strategies
  • Enhancing protection through civilians participation
  • Data collection and protection of informants
  • Creating effective information systems
  • Accountability to civilians

    Module 5: Multi-stakeholder PoC planning and evaluation

  • Joint protection assessment: a common diagnosis
  • Multi-stakeholder strategic and contingency planning
  • Coordination, decision-making and effective command in PoC
  • Permanent monitoring and flexible response
  • Protection as an outcome: measurable goals and evaluation
  • Role play
Course Levels
Beginner / Entry The SC may be included in mission preparedness training for peacekeeping, NGO, diplomatic and state personnel.
Intermediate / Advanced The primary target audience of the SC as it has been developed is for senior and intermediate personnel involved in protection of civilians coordination and decision-making roles and able to set policies and practices for mission implementation.
Expert / Specialisation The SC may also be developed and customised for protection officers specifically in missions where these exist or where PoC is a core mandate of civil and state institutions. It is still recommended, however, that the training should be provided to all relevant senior and intermediate personnel - not only those with a specific mandate on PoC - and, whenever and wherever possible to mission forces and agency / organisation staff and national counterparts.

The course has a special focus in sensitivity towards diversity of protection subjects (gender, age, sexual orientation, ethnicity, etc.) and other institutional values and principles. Moreover, it concentrates on local ownership and conflict sensitivities, putting civilian populations at the centre of the protection strategy through a participatory process and adopting a “do no harm” approach avoiding putting the informant/s under unnecessary risk and re-victimization.

Links to relevant resources & publications
Robyn Charli Carpenter. 'Innocent Women and Children' Gender, Norms and the Protection of Civilians. Routledge 2013.
Schirch, Lisa (editor). “Lesson 29. Trauma awareness”, Handbook on Human Security: A Civil-Military-Police Curriculum. The Hague, The Netherlands: Alliance for Peacebuilding, GPPAC, Kroc Institute, March 2016.

This multi-stakeholder training puts practical skills, development of the right ‘attitudes’ for effective PoC, and previous experience of participants at the centre of the learning experience. Particularly, module 2 (“Whose Protection?”) would be built upon participants reflection on their sector role, principles and dilemmas and on their capacity to identify the possible nexus among different PoC stakeholders through a case study. Module 5 would conclude with a role play that would allow participants to put in practice this collaborative approach to PoC, creating a comprehensive strategy which integrates the multiple roles, capabilities and mandates of all protection actors. In order to ensure the SC develops participants operational and performance capacities effectively, trainings should include:

  • Content Briefings which can be developed ‘lecture’ / presentation style or through participants engaging to develop briefings on core topics.
  • Case Studies from missions or specific incidents and types of PoC incidents / situations can help contextualise PoC and make it more ‘real’ for participants, helping also to learn from past / other experiences and contexts.
  • Review of Lessons Learned and actual experiences from missions and ‘on the ground’ / in the field contexts - which can be provided through expert speakers, case studies, videos and film documentaries and reflective practices and mission analysis drawing upon participants own experiences.
  • ‘Real case’ and ‘probable’ scenarios engaging participants to develop practical responses and strategies for how to address key PoC challenges & practices.
  • Exercises to apply peace and context analysis, needs analysis, and planning for PoC implementation relevant to participants actual mission and contexts.
  • Simulations and Role plays addressing actual PoC situations experienced or likely / possible to experience in missions.
  • Theatre / Forum Theatre where participants are either engaged in performing situations or where local actors or theatre groups actually enact situations for/with participants can help in immersing participants in the experience and better understanding and recognising the specific dynamics, emotions and challenges involved in PoC.
  • Testimonies provided by survivors or those who have experienced actual attacks upon and physical safety and rights violations of civilians - either by missions themselves or other actors in the field - can be powerful elements in a training. These experiences / stories can also be recorded and shared/used as videos in courses. In cases of engaging with survivor testimonials, survivor protection and do no harm principles and practices are essential and should be respected and effectively implemented.
  • Trainers should ensure methodologies and materials are highly practical and are able to develop not only participants’ knowledge and understanding but also their actual capabilities and the necessary skills and supporting attitudes which can enable effective implementation in the field.

This training is a joint course gathering participants experience from the field as peacebuilding practitioners. This curricula is mainly dedicated to enable collaboration in PoC to improve international stakeholders practice

The following approaches which can be integrated into trainings or complementary to trainings can assist development or improvement of capacity for Protection of Civilians:

  • Learning Documentaries (Film) and Publications: Creation of documentaries and case study films and publications can assist for improvement of competency and understanding on PoC and may be used in trainings, in training preparation, and post-training materials or independently
  • Joint (Multi-Sector, Multi-Stakeholder) PoC Needs Analysis: Joint PoC Needs Analysis both pre-deployment and in the ‘mandate creation/definition’ phase and in-deployment can improve mission and organisational capacity to identify specific PoC needs and challenges in the mission-context. This can include development of response options / scenarios and measures
  • Case Learning / Situation Review: In mission capacity can be enhanced by appropriate case learning and situation reviews implemented in response to specific PoC situations both as they are existing/developing and after handling of specific situations (whether effectively or poorly) to improve in-mission learning, evaluation and recording of lessons, and improved proactive future policies and practice
  • Single or Multi-Sectoral / Multi-Stakeholder Field-based simulations and response exercises: as in the field of humanitarian and emergency preparedness, field-based simulations and exercises to exercise preparation for specific incidents/situations which may be faced in the field, is one of the most effective ways of improving capacities of personnel and leadership
  • Scenario Development: In contexts where conflict dynamics may be worsening / escalating, or where specific events - such as elections or instability in a specific region or neighbouring country - could threaten or challenge PoC, relevant actors - international and national - should engaging scenario development and futures forecasting to identify possible specific PoC risks/needs and how to improve capacity to address them
  • Joint Evaluations / Multi-Mission/Country Evaluations: A critical approach to capacity development includes joint evaluation of what has been done / experienced so far in that mission/context. Even better can be ‘multi-mission’ evaluations to gather a broader scope and depth of experience and learnings across mission contexts. If this can be implemented as multi-sector, multi-stakeholder approaches and with local communities and national institutions / stakeholders, they can also help to improve national capabilities for PoC
  • Online / ICT-based real situation simulations: Missions and organisations in the field may also wish to consider development of online or ICT-based simulations and exercises which can integrate video tutorials and testimonials, lessons learned, and other elements. These can be used for training / developing participants response to different situations and improving attitudes, skills and knowledge of PoC either complementary to or independent of PoC trainings.
Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Course Title Link to Course Outline (if available) Link to Relevant Publications / Resources / Handbooks / Toolkits used in the course (if available)
Austrian Study Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution Course on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict(ESDC and UN certified) www.aspr.peacecastle.eu
Peace Operations Training Institute Protection of Civilians www.peaceopstraining.org cdn.peaceopstraining.org
UNITAR Unarmed Civilian Protection www.unitar.org
UNITAR Strengthening Civilian Capacities to Protect Civilians onlinelearning.unitar.org
Scuola Superiore Sant Anna & Crisis Management Centre Finland International Standards For The Protection Of Individuals & Groups: A Training Course For Field Officers Working On Human Rights www.entriforccm.eu
Title Organisation / Institution Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
Handbook on Human Security: A Civil-Military-Police Curriculum GPPAC 2016 www.humansecuritycoordination.org
Implementing Guidelines for Military Components of United Nations Peacekeeping Missions DPKO 2015
Humanitarian Protection Improving protection outcomes to reduce risks for people in humanitarian crises ECHO 2016
New Protection Manual for Human Rights Defenders Protection International 2009 protectioninternational.org
Key Elements of Results-Based Protection InterAction n.d. protectioninternational.org
Draft Revised Guidelines on the Protection of Civilians in CSDP Missions and operations Council of the EU 2010
Responsible Data Management training pack OXFAM 2017 policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk
Improving the Safety of Civilians. A Protection Training Pack OXFAM 2009
Enhancing Protection for Civilians in Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence ICRC 2008 www.icrc.org
Professional Standards for Protection Work ICRC 2013
Proactive Presence Field strategies for civilian protection Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue 2006
Protecting Civilians from Violence. A Threat-Based Approach to Protection of Civilians in UN Peace Operations NODEFIC 2016
Framework for Drafting Comprehensive Protection of Civilians (POC) Strategies in UN Peacekeeping Operations OCHA 2011
Participatory Research Methods: A Methodological Approach in Motion. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 13 (1). Art. 30. Bergold, Jarg & Thomas, Stefan 2012 nbn-resolving.de

Civilian / NGO

Protection of civilians in conflict settings is a multidimensional and complex matter involving the coordinated action of multiple stakeholders, from local to international institutions. However, the civilian and military components of a peacekeeping mission, and agencies and NGOs personnel deployed in the field, are often unable to perform their duty in a coordinated manner, complementing each other’s efforts to protect civilians on the ground. This lack of effective collaboration is further limited by the absence of a joint assessment of protection needs, the lack of information sharing, the inability to assess the threats based on civilians accounts, and to establish an integrated protection strategy which includes the interrelation between the protection activities performed by every actor and their expected outcomes. Through this multi-stakeholder training focused on protection of civilians, participants would have the chance to experience their complementarities with representatives from other sectors, to understand the limits and capacities of the different mandates and to create channels for a safe and effective communication and information sharing. They will learn how to draw a joint planning for protection putting local population at the centre of their strategy, and identifying the nexus and feedback loops between the multiple protection activities performed in the field. Trainees would learn about the multiple tools and instruments supporting civilians protection and, most importantly, learn how and when to use them. Civilian personnel in peacekeeping missions, agencies and NGOs are a key actor in the creation of a protective environment and respond to protection needs. Protection and human rights officers and humanitarian workers can decisively contribute to reduce the vulnerability of population through assistance, advocacy and capacity-building activities. In order to maximise protection, it is necessary for every sector to learn from each other, to share a common understanding of the protection deficits, and to define an integrated and collaborative strategy, respecting each other’s principles and areas of action. The deep shared knowledge and understanding provided by this training open venues for respectful collaborative engagement and performance between mission components (civilian and military), NGOs, aid agencies, and the civilian population.

EEAS / Diplomats / Civil Servants

Diplomats and political representatives of international institutions are often engaged in high level discussions with governments in countries affected by conflict. They can use their political leverage and position to advance peace processes, ensure greater accountability for human rights violations, and prevent further violence. However, it is often difficult to balance the need to maintain a good relationship with government representatives to progress in peace negotiations, and the duty to remember the state about its responsibility to protect the civilian population against violence and human rights violations. To keep this equilibrium it is crucial to understand how political decisions affect civilians protection and the protection activities carried out by other actors deployed in the field. This multi-stakeholder training allows political figures to visualize the role they play in protecting civilians and its interrelation and complementarities with other protective roles. They will learn how to jointly assess protection needs and draw a strategy able to enhance protection results, putting local population at the centre, and how this concerted action could contribute to peace efforts.

Military / Armed Forces

Protection of civilians is present within the mandate of 94% of peacekeeping missions operating today. The military in missions are not alone in the fulfilment of this task, there are many other actors engage in civilians protection, with different principles, mandates and understandings of what protection entails. In order to realize protection, a coordinated action is required, able to maximize the contribution of every actor and respectful of their respective principles. This training provide the military engaged in peacekeeping missions with the possibility to experience a comprehensive approach to civilian protection, learning from limitations and complementarities of every actor and contributing to improve their relationship with their counterparts. They will learn how their duty to protect is understood within the mission and how this widens the scope and the depth of the activities they can perform. They would learn to see the interactions between different protection dimensions and activities, and to sequence intervention with other actors in order to obtain better protection results, putting local population at the centre of the analysis and being accountable to them.

Police

Protection of civilians in conflict settings is a multidimensional and complex matter involving the coordinated action of multiple stakeholders, from local to international institutions. However, the civilian and military components of a peacekeeping mission, and agencies and NGOs personnel deployed in the field, are often unable to perform their duty in a coordinated manner, complementing each other’s efforts to protect civilians on the ground. This lack of effective collaboration is further limited by the absence of a joint assessment of protection needs, the lack of information sharing, the inability to assess the threats based on civilians accounts, and to establish an integrated protection strategy which includes the interrelation between the protection activities performed by every actor and their expected outcomes.

Through this multi-stakeholder training focused on protection of civilians, participants would have the chance to experience their complementarities with representatives from other sectors, to understand the limits and capacities of the different mandates and to create channels for a safe and effective communication and information sharing. They will learn how to draw a joint planning for protection putting local population at the centre of their strategy, and identifying the nexus and feedback loops between the multiple protection activities performed in the field. Trainees would learn about the multiple tools and instruments supporting civilians protection and, most importantly, learn how and when to use them.

Police personnel in peacekeeping missions and international deployments are a key actor in the creation of a protective environment and respond to protection needs. Police can decisively contribute to reduce the vulnerability of population through assistance, presence and capacity-building activities with local law enforcement institutions. In order to maximise protection, it is necessary for every sector to learn from each other, to share a common understanding of the protection deficits, and to define an integrated and collaborative strategy, respecting each other’s principles and areas of action. The deep shared knowledge and understanding provided by this training open venues for respectful collaborative engagement and performance between mission components (civilian and military), police, NGOs, aid agencies, and the civilian population.

Introduction

Empirical research has shown that natural resources are correlated with (armed) conflict and violence in various ways: they may trigger, exacerbate or prolong conflicts. The figure below demonstrates how frequent natural resources are linked to conflict. For research findings and reports see UNEP, 2009 as well as reports and articles in the project library of Environmental Peacebuilding (2017a) and the research project at Uppsala University (DPCR, 2014).

Graphic: Natural Resources & Armed Conflict

In the past two decades, the environment and natural resources have also entered the peacebuilding practice and academic debate. The term environmental peacebuilding has emerged and is increasingly used to describe processes around natural resource (management) and conflict prevention, peacebuilding and conflict transformation. Yet there is no coherence amongst international actors on understanding and implementation of environmental peacebuilding, which stretches from issues around natural resource governance, environmental protection, climate change etc. To avoid confusion about the topic of this sub-curriculum, the text below defines the relevant concepts and introduces examples of existing practice.

Natural Resources and Armed Conflict

Graphic: Natural resources are categorized into

The link between natural resources (NR) and conflict is at least twofold: Firstly, the environment and natural resources are increasingly under pressure due to demographic changes (population growth), urbanization, migration as well as increasing, faster and widespread natural resource depletion and pollution, for example desertification cation due to climate change. This in turn creates potential for conflict and armed violence over for example land tenure and access to water which may result in grievances such as food insecurity. One example are conflicts (that at times turn violent) between pastoralist communities in the Horn of Africa over depleting water resources and grazing land (examples in Mkutu, 2001 & Bevan, 2007). Moreover, protests over pollution due to natural resource extraction (e.g. oil spills) and following grievances may turn violent and additionally meet with violent reactions by state security forces. Secondly, natural resources can become conflict resources, contributing to exacerbation and/or continuation of armed conflict that has many root causes beyond the resources. In that regard the systematic exploitation and / or trade in the contexts of armed conflict often contribute or result in serious and widespread human rights violations. The growth, production and trade of narcotics in Afghanistan and the mining and trade of diamonds in Sierra Leone are examples for conflict resources.

Natural Resources in / for Peacebuilding As much as natural resources correlate to armed conflict, natural resource can also contribute to and / or be used for peacebuilding. A central aspect for this is the management or governance of (potential) conflict resources in post-war/conflict contexts, for example when peacebuilding activities already take place. Natural resource management (NRM) refers to the institutions, policies and practices that govern land, water, forests, minerals, hydrocarbons etc. According to the UN (2012) conflict sensitive NRM occurs „if the power to make decisions about vital resources can be contested by different stakeholders without violence.” (UN, 2012). The term environmental peacebuilding had entered the discourse to describe a process which “incorporates natural resource management into peacebuilding activities and strategies to support security, humanitarian, and development objectives” (Environmental Peacebuilding, 2017b). The practice of environmental peacebuilding seeks to respond to the needs of ”biodiverse communities around the world that struggle to prevent or mitigate conflicts over natural resources” (Ajroud & Edmond, 2015). The example of Afghanistan illustrates firstly the link between natural resources and armed conflict/ violence and secondly the potentials for (international) peacebuilding activities on natural resource management: A report by the UN country Team in Afghanistan points out that “Natural resources are the source of numerous fracture lines in Afghanistan and the wider region the division of water at local and trans-boundary levels, disputes over land ownership, the regional drugs trade, and the illegal smuggling of high value timber already generate tension and conflict. Recent investments in mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, if not managed carefully, could generate new problems” (Brown & Blankenship, 2013, foreword). Natural resources are a source and/or driver for conflict, thus play a major role in the transformation of (violent) conflicts. Therefore the NR and its management should be considered in peacebuilding activities. It is vital that the international peacebuilding community engaging in Afghanistan mainstreams environmental aspects into their strategies and actions. This is a good example of how the two disciplines of peacebuilding and natural resource management can be merged. In Afghanistan, third party peacebuilding combined / focused on NRM efforts may cover a variety of activities of the peacebuilding palette: setting an example, making conflict sensitive approaches a standard requirement for development projects that impact natural resources promoting awareness and understanding of the role of NRM in peacebuilding building capacities through training and education in conflict sensitive and participatory NRM, including technical competencies facilitation and encouraging public participation and inclusiveness in NRM mediation and negotiation of natural resource conflicts at regional & community level data collection and early warning around NR conflicts and violence.

References
Ajroud, B. & Edmond J. (2015). Conservation for Peace: Perspectives of Environmental Peacebuilders in Liberia and Timor-Leste. Alliance for Peacebuilding. buildingpeaceforum.com
Bevan, J. (2007). Between a rock and hard place: Armed Violence in African Pastoral Communities. Conference Background Paper. UNDP. www.genevadeclaration.org
Brown, O. and Blankenship, E. (2013). Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding Afghanistan. UNEP. staging.unep.org
Conversation International (CI) (2017). Conservation and Peace. www.conservation.org
DPCR - Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University (2017). Understanding Environmental Peacebuilding. www.pcr.uu.se
Environmental Peacebuilding (2017a). Library. http://environmentalpeacebuilding.org/library/ Environmental Peacebuilding (2017b). About. environmentalpeacebuilding.org
Mkutu, K. (2001). Pastoralism and conflict in the Horn of Africa. Africa Peace Forum / Saferworld / University of Bradford. www.saferworld.org.uk
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2009). From conflict to peacebuilding: The role of natural resources and the environment. postconflict.unep.ch
UN (Interagency Framework Team for Preventive Action) (2012). Strengthening capacity for conflict-sensitive natural resource management. Toolkit and guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. www.un.org

By the end of the course, participants should be able to explain how natural resources can link to violent / armed conflict,understand and assess natural resource management(NRM) in particular post-war / conflict contexts / areas,conduct a context analysis of existing actors and their capacity in NRM and peacebuilding, develop a strategy to strengthen / support / improve existing systems and processes of NRM or o create new, conflict sensitive and participatory NRM systems, use / apply tools to build and/or strengthen participatory and conflict sensitive natural resource management of local stakeholders in specific post-war / conflict contexts – by combining approaches of peacebuilding with NRM. For example implement strategies to strengthen dialogue and participation through building trust and relationships stakeholder in natural resource management in post-war / conflict situations. Support and conduct monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for conflict sensitive and participatory NRM by combining M&E tools from the peacebuilding sector and NRM, elaborate a personalized work plan for their personal project or organisation in the context of NRM and peacebuilding.

Neither there are training opportunities under ESDC, ENTRi or other EU-related training stakeholders on environmental peacebuilding or natural resource management for/in peacebuilding, nor do non-state actors offer sufficient training in this field. Yet many of today European (EU, Member State and non-state) peacebuilding activities take place in settings where armed conflict is triggered, exacerbated or prolonged by natural resources and inadequate natural resource management. Examples include Afghanistan, DR Congo, Liberia, East-Timor, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan and the Philippines. None of the EU CSDP missions and operations is mandated with tasks around environmental peacebuilding, yet the European Commission engages (often through its Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP)) projects in this field. One example is the UNEP-EU partnership "to develop and implement a strategic multi-agency project focused on building the capacity of national stakeholders, the UN system, and the EU to prevent land and natural resources from contributing to violent conflict" (UNEP, 2017). Regarding non-state/NGO, there are many practical examples of initiatives in Europe for environmental diplomacy and environmental peacebuilding. International Alert for example works on environment and sustainable peace around conflict sensitive forest governance in Myanmar and natural resource management in Liberia (International Alert, 2017).

Competency development in conflict sensitive and participatory natural resource management in setting of (post-) armed conflict has not yet been picked up by training stakeholders in Europe. The necessity and urgency to do more in the field of environmental peacebuilding and related training is apparent as many UN, in particular UNEP, initiatives have gained momentum. UNEP has developed strong and comprehensive strategies to mainstream environmental aspects into UN conflict prevention and peacebuilding activities and to raise awareness and setting up training programmes, mainly through UNITAR. Yet hitherto, training has mainly focussed on explaining the linkage between natural resources and conflict and/or peace and not the concrete practical competencies (attitudes, skills and knowledge) practitioners need to engage in environmental peacebuilding.

References
International Alert (2017). Natural resource management. www.international-alert.org
UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme (2017). www.unep.org
UN – United Nations (2017). The EU-UN Partnership on Land, Natural Resources and Conflict Prevention. www.un.org

This sub-curriculum is relevant to specific moments dedicated at mission set-up or strategic planning of missions / projects, if applied and implemented with key decision makers in the mission planning and design. Furthermore, this training is relevant during / in missions when implemented with staff directly responsible for the technical/ thematic aspects around environmental peacebuilding /conflict sensitive natural resource management of the mission.

Ideally, it is a very mixed participant group. This course seeks also to bridge a gap between NGO, community-based peacebuilding practitioners and EU/state civil servants and diplomats, as conflict sensitive and participatory NRM in post-war / conflict settings needs mutual understanding but especially engagement and cooperation between these (external) actors to be efficient and sustainable. Capacities need to be developed of staff on the grass-root, mid-level and government level. A diverse participant group would also include personnel working in the private sector and those with a scientific background around NRM.

Primary target group:

Civilian CPPB mission staff, who (will) work in (post-) conflict settings with a natural resource dimension. They should have a prior knowledge and experience in natural resource management in fragile / (post-) conflict contexts. Technical experts in natural resource management, who (will) work in CPPB projects (of EU, government or non-state / NGO background) on natural resource management / environmental conversation / protection or in development cooperation implemented in fragile / (post-) conflict contexts.

Those, who should be targeted as well in mission responsible with the management of natural policy-makers from the local and national authorities resources or with peacebuilding/conflict transformation (e.g. Environmental Commissions/Departments, Local Peace Councils)representatives of the extractive industry (private, international companies) operating in (post-) conflict settings. Personnel in (sustainable) development cooperation of NGOs, UN or governmental organisations, working on issues of natural resource management in post-war and conflict settings and /or conflict prevention and peacebuilding.

Training Institutions / Trainers engaging with this sub-curriculum would pioneer the implementation of such courses.

There is a need for merging competencies of peacebuilding with technical expertise in NRM. A training institution may choose to provide training on natural resource management in post-war / conflict settings to fill a gap in the current European training landscape: A study by the Initiative for Peacebuilding of 2009 (Gaus & Houdret, 2009) has identified a lack of training addressing natural resource management and the environment regarding conflict prevention and (post-) conflict peacebuilding. By 2017, there are still not sufficient and especially no residential training on environmental peacebuilding in Europe. There are neither ENTRi nor ESDC courses; nor do non-state training actors provide training in this area (SwissPeace lastly offered their course in 2013). UNITAR is the only training organization regularly providing training in the area of environmental peacebuilding – yet mostly online courses. Additionally, there is a lack of courses on an intermediate or advanced / specialized level for experienced peacebuilders. Most (online) courses only touch upon the knowledge dimension and do not to train practical skills on how to facilitate the creation of conflict sensitive NRM systems, which are accountable and transparent. Institutions, who have a vested interest in innovation and offering needs-based, state-of-the-art training, covering a wide range of the complexities of peacebuilding, could use this curriculum. Furthermore, this sub-curriculum is relevant for training institutions who offer specialisation courses in different areas of CPPB intervention. They could expand their training catalogue with courses on NRM and resource-based conflict themes. A further specialization can be to focus on a particular region or country.

Lastly, this SC is also relevant for academic institutions and universities, offering courses on natural resources in conflicts and environmental peacebuilding.

References
Gaus, A. and Houdret, A. (2009) Environmental Conflict Trainings - A Synopsis of Approaches and Further Needs. Adelphi for the Initiative for Peacebuilding (IfP).

Organisations may choose to send their staff to this training for their competence development, if they work in NRM and/or environmental peacebuilding. A more concrete reason to send staff to such training is if a conflict analysis as well as needs assessment for a mission / project set up and design has revealed a need for staff to be better equipped with competencies on environmental peacebuilding. Furthermore, project monitoring, reflection and mid-term evaluation of an ongoing programme may find out a need to send staff to training. Lastly, also (independent) practitioners who have a direct mandate / Terms of References relating to resource conflicts or environmental aspects of peacebuilding can benefit from taking part in a training like proposed in this sub-curriculum. This can also be staff of a development or peacebuilding consultancy engaging in this field.

This course is about merging aspects of two very broad disciplines (peacebuilding and natrual resource management), whereby participants aquire, learn and improve competencies from the conflict prevention and peacebuilding sphere and technical competencies in natural resource management. The graphic below provides some examples which competencies fall under conflict prevention / peacebuilding and which under the technicalities of natural resource management.

Graphic: Merging two disciplines.

Attitudes: Respect, Value and Sensitivity for the Environment and the Role of Natural Resources in Conflict Settings

Cross-cuting and basic attitudes relevant to conflict prevention and peacebuilding are listed in the table below. For this training, an environmental angle is taken. During the course the participants’ awareness about the role of natural resources in post- war / conflict settings should be raised and the following attitudes developed:

Respect, Value and Sensitivity: Participants should develop sensitivity, building on respect for and value of natural resources and the environment in a given context. A sensitive approach includes considering, respecting and valuing cultural, economic, political, religious usage and / or meaning attached to natural resources as well as awareness on pollution and destruction of the environment due to human activity (at individual, community / society and nation-state level). Furthermore, this includes respect towards traditional / indigenous means to manage natural resources intimes of peace and conflict.

Perception of “conflict resources” as “peace resources”: It is important that participants try to find possibilities how natural resources that are associated with conflict and violence can become an entry point for peace initiative or may be itself transformed into a “peace resource”, by which adversaries can find a common, peaceful ground. It is about being open to and exploring other meanings and functions of the natural resource outside of war and violence. One example is how minerals are perceived as the cause of violence and thus exclusively framed as conflict resources in the Eastern DR Congo. This view in the conflict and resource is too simplistic and does neglect livelihood aspect around the natural resources as well as other, local causes for violence (Autesserre, 2010 & Usanov et al., 2013).

Human Rights Perspective: Participants learn about a rights-based approach to the topic, for example that people have a human right to a clean environment as well as equality in access to resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from its utilization. Openness to Natural Sciences, Methodologies and Technologies: Especially regarding renewable and non-renewable natural resources, practitioners should learn to stay open to technical solutions to NRM and how these can be incorporated into peacebuilding activities.

Attitudes in Conflict Prevention & Peacebuilding Work
Equality Belief that all people regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity etc. should be respected and valued; desire to promote human rights
Respect for Diversity Belief in anti-discrimination, desire to challenge stereotypes, desire to understand and respect those different from self, promoting a non-Eurocentric ethos, tolerance, recognising dignity of each person
Empathy Non-judgemental attitude, value of listening to others, not elevating oneself above others or demonizing others
Non-Violence Belief that violence is not a solution to conflict, understanding that violence promotes domination rather than inclusion, desire to address root causes of conflict, build relationships, and make institutions more equitable
Social Responsibility Understanding interdependence of the world and having a sense of duty in improving the world, seeking to guarantee dignity

Table: Attitudes in Conflict Prevent & Peacebuilding Work (Peacetraining.eu)

Context Analysis: Understand Natural Resource and Conflict Context

A first and crucial competency for personnel working on natural resources in peacebuilding is to be able to analyse and understand the context of the conflict and natural resource with all cultural, historic, political and economic aspects around it. In this training participants learn to identify and understand the meaning and function of natural resources in the (post-) conflict context. Participants learn how to use certain tools of conflict analysis, yet with eye on natural resource management. Participants will learn how to learn from communities and stakeholders on NRM and if applicable peace processes, identify and map natural resources, meaning to visualize and analyse the conflict spatially, identify and map to visualize stakeholders related natural resource management and conflict. They learn to analyse the actors’ relationships as well as interests, positions and needs regarding the natural resource. This includes identifying sources of legitimacy of stakeholders. Particular attention should be paid to marginalized groups.

Identify existing, formal and informal natural resource management systems as well as exiting institutions and laws / regulations, and how they relate to (violent) conflict. This includes building on (existing) research and technical expertise of the natural resource as well as bridging technical with socio-political knowledge about the context and peacebuilding.

Needs Assessment: Learning from Local Stakeholders about NRM Needs

This competency is related to the context analysis. Participants learn to conduct a needs assessment or better framed, that practitioners will know how to learn from local partners and host population. Concretely, they will learn to assess the capacities and potentially lack of capacities of relevant stakeholders regarding NRM. This includes considering the stakeholders technical expertise in NRM and knowledge / awareness of environmental protection laws or land rights.

Strategy Development and Programme Design for Activities to Foster / Create Conflict Sensitive & Participatory NRM

Based on the context analysis and needs assessment, participants learn to set priorities for resolving immediate disputes around natural resources, building a functional NRM system, and improving relationships between the involved actors, like the government and civil society groups. Having learned to map and identify actors, their needs, strengths, needs and challenges regarding NRM, they now build a strategy on how to approach the given issue about NRM, e.g. disputes over water resources, land distribution or resource extraction, in a particular context. Learning from case studies and lessons identified of existing projects on NRM in (post) conflict settings, participants learn about the importance of local author and ownership and how to achieve it.

To identify opportunities and entry points for conflict resolution and peacebuilding related to natural resource and its management. Develop a strategy for conflict sensitive and participatory NRM, and conduct a SWOT analysis to reviewing potentials and challenges of that strategy. Acquire knowledge and ideas, e.g. based on case studies, about possible forms of participation an conflict sensitive, functioning institutions and / or structures for NRM in (post-) conflict contexts. Lessons identified and best practice analyses and guides will be a reference point for this. outline potential locally owned processes – together with local partners / stakeholders - for specific real-life cases on who to involve/support how to create conflict sensitive and participatory NRM systems, to design gender mainstreamed and gender, cultural and conflict sensitive and participatory NRM systems by using different dialogue and consensus-building tools. The who means assessing which individuals and groups (e.g. armed groups, communities, ministries, businesses, religious leaders, police, rangers of natural reserves) at which level (grassroots, mid- or top-level (according to Lederach’s Pyramid of Actors)) are involved in the process. Additionally, participants lean on how to organize participation of crucial stakeholders in NRM, for example through dialogue platforms on a communal level.

Sensitivity towards Culture, Gender and Conflict and Intercultural Communication

Before engaging in facilitating the creation or improvement of conflict sensitive NRM systems, participants need to train their own skills in do no harm and conflict sensitivity: Participants learn what do no harm and conflict sensitivity means in theory and how to practically implement it in their own work of environmental peacebuilding. Hereby it is also important that participants reflect and determine their own and their deployment organisation’s role and tasks, including its possibilities and challenges, within the process. Furthermore, the participants should train their intercultural communication skills, practicing / learning how to address and involve local stakeholders in their country of deployment. This includes i) becoming aware of (possible) local language and concepts to describe conflict, peacebuilding and NRM ii) adopting to cultural and language specificities and iii) avoiding technical jargon around NRM and peacebuilding. Moreover, participant’s learn what gender sensitivity in NRM and how to be gender sensitive in their own work, for example by promoting women’s participation and empowerment, challenging gender-based violence and ensuring a gender lens in all work activities.

Cooperation

Participants will train their awareness and skills on identifying and developing plans on how to engage and cooperate with other, relevant actors in the field, such as local and international NGOs working on peacebuilding, natural resource preservation and environmental protection, international organisations and related programmes, private sector (e.g. extractive industries) or governmental agencies. This also includes identifying how to use existing frameworks or global / regional approaches for NRM, like for example the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative.

Reflective Practice and Evaluation: Assess Conflict Sensitive & Participatory NRM Strategy & Activities

Lastly, participants learn about reflective environmental peacebuilding practice and how it applies to them and their work. Furthermore, they learn basic skills of monitoring and evaluation for their own working context.

Technical Knowledge on Natural Resources

Participants will learn about basic aspects of natural resources. The specific focus and detail depends on the participant’s background and tasks in the field as well as the concerned natural resource (land, renewable, non-renewable) covering for example Pollution, climate change and environmental degradation due to human activity Environmental impact of war on ecosystems and the environment, Knowledge on ecosystems and ecosystem services, such forest ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems and grassland ecosystems and how to sustainably use them (agri- and aquaculture), Basic knowledge on nutrient cycles (ecological recycling) and technological recycling and how their impact human life

Technical Competencies on Natural Resource Management

Participants will learn about different political, legal and basic scientific aspects around natural resource governance / management. The specific focus and detail may depend on the participant’s background and tasks in the field as well as the concerned natural resource (land, renewable, non-renewable) covering for example Macroeconomic policies that promote structural change for sustainable, conflict sensitive and participatory NRM (e.g. ecosystem-based management), Efficient revenue management regarding non-renewable resources and extractive industries, Protection: Creation and maintenance of biodiversity conservation areas, Policies and laws for sustainable mining, agri- and aquaculture, forestry, tourism as well as waste management Technologies for monitoring natural resources, such as GPS data collection on land Geographic Information Systems (GIS), for obtaining, storing, assessing, managing and presenting spatial or geographic data. Environmental Impact Assessment (e.g. UNEP report Abaza et al., 2004)

References
Autesserre, S. (2010). The Trouble With the Congo: Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Abaza, H., Bisset, R. & Sadler, B. (2004). Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Towards an Integrated Approach. UNEP
Lederach, J. P., Neufeldt, R., & Culbertson, H. (2007). Reflective peacebuilding: A planning, monitoring, and learning toolkit. Notre Dame: Joan B. Kroc Inst. for International Peace Studies. www.crs.org
Usanov, A., de Ridder, M., Auping, W. and Lingemann, S. (2013). Coltan, Congo & Conflict. Hague Centre for Strategic Studies. hcss.nl
UNEP (2015). Factsheet on Human Rights and the Environment. wedocs.unep.org
UN (2016) Conflict Analysis Practice Note. undg.org

Prerequisite competencies, depending on

  • Project Management in conflict prevention / peacebuilding
  • Conflict sensitivity and Do No Harm
  • Community-based peacebuilding / empowerment
  • Private sector and peacebuilding

Complementary or specialization competencies / sub-curricula

  • Monitoring and evaluation
  • Greening peace operations (e.g. UN Greening the Blue Helmets)
  • Democratization, good governance and anti-corruption
  • Mediation, negotiation and diplomacy
  • DDR (Socioeconomic Reintegration of ex-combatants related to land tenure and natural resources // Post-Conflict Employment Creation)
  • De-mining
  • Rights-based approaches to peacebuilding

This sub-curriculum is designed for a course of about ten days.

Overview of Modules
Assessing Needs, Experience and Prior Knowledge on Peacebuilding and Natural Resource Management Course Preparations Online before on-site training In-Test Participant Needs Assessment Survey
Introduction to Natural Resources and Armed Conflict Group Introduction - Breaking the Ice Expectations Introducing NRM: Sharing Experiences and Activating Prior Knowledge Link between Natural Resources and Armed Conflict
Peacebuilding and Conflict Transformation Essentials Concepts Insider & Outside Actors Conflict Sensitivity & Do No Harm Examples of Processes of Peacebuilding & Conflict Transformation
Natural Resource Management: Systems and Processes NRM Structures NRM Processes Examples of technical approaches and scientific innovation Case Studies of NRM structures & processes
Context Analysis regarding Natural Resource Management in post-war / conflict situations Context Analysis Tools (Mapping natural resources, key stakeholders, their interest, needs and capacities, conflict drivers)
Strategy Development and Planning for Conflict Sensitive and Participatory Natural Resource Management Projects Strategy Development and Planning: What? Who? How? Case Studies Challenges to projects on conflict sensitive and participatory NRM Development of personalized work plan / strategy, incl. SWOT
Reflective Practices: Monitoring and Evaluation of conflict sensitive and participatory natural resource management projects Reflective Peacebuilding Practice Monitoring and Evaluation with M&E tools from both disciplines peacebuilding and NRM

Table: Overview of Modules

Course Preparations: Assessing Needs, Experience and Prior Knowledge on Peacebuilding and NRM (Online before training In-Test and Survey). The trainer / training provider should conduct a needs and prior experience assessment to tailor the course upon background of participates. On the basis of the test results and survey, the trainer/training organization can fine-tune the learning objectives, topics and case studies, tailoring them to the participants’ prior knowledge, experiences and needs. (More details below under the ‘Assessment’ Section.)

Guiding questions to develop the survey and test are:

  • Who is the target audience, what are their profiles, professional experiences and cultural and educational backgrounds?
  • What are their working conditions, requirements, functions and responsibilities in particular peacebuilding / NRM activities?
  • What are gaps in skills, knowledge and attitude, considering the participants’ experiences? What gaps exist in current performance of the participants and the current/upcoming assignment?

Introduction to Natural Resources and Armed Conflict (on-site)

The introduction module consists of four parts: Firstly, about 2 hours (depending on the group size) should be dedicated to course and group introduction via interaction methods for getting-to know each other and breaking the ice. Secondly, the participants and trainers should reflect upon the expectations about the training and participants may be asked to set themselves learning outcomes. Thirdly, the topic natural resource management is introduced through for example methods of brainstorming / ideas collection about NRM in post-war and conflict situations. The trainer should draw on the experience and knowledge in the room, discussing experiences regarding natural resources and their management in the political, historical, cultural and economic context(s) in which participants have worked and / or lived. Content includes different functions and meaning of land, renewable and non-renewable resources in different contexts / societies / cultures / communities (e.g. land and indigenous).

Discussing human rights perspectives and approaches, for example that people have a human right to a clean environment as well as equal access to resources and the fair sharing of benefits from its utilization. For details, see the UNEP factsheet 2015 on Human Rights and the Environment. Four, this module closes by addressing different types of natural resources and their link to armed conflict. The particularities of land as well as renewable and non-renewable natural resources about the onset and exacerbation is explained. Participants should be asked to provide examples of how natural resources relate to conflict in their personal work or living contexts. Additionally, the module covers defining key terms and concepts around natural resources and their significance in people’s lives (land, renewable and non-renewable, conflict resources, and resource curse) (in small groups).

For details see:

If necessary, cases (additional to those of the participants) of how different types of natural resources relate to conflict for example

Discussing the impact of war on the environment and natural resources a critical discussion of selected theories around NR and (armed) conflict and correlations/links between the two, incl. How external factors (e.g. demographic pressure, migration or climate change) affect NR. Theories inter alia include resource scarcity and abundance, poor governance and unequal distribution, trans-boundary resource conflicts. Furthermore, theories on resources and ecosystems like the tragedy of the commons (Hardin, 1968) can be discussed. Lastly, the transition to the following module includes discussing the natural resource potential for peacebuilding.

Peacebuilding and Conflict Transformation Essentials

Current, international practice of peacebuilding, also regarding natural resources. The content includes working definitions and concepts of conflict, violence, post-conflict/ post-violence peacebuilding, conflict management and transformation. For example see Galtung`s triangle of violence and concepts of positive and negative peace and Lederach on conflict transformation. It is vital to additionally introduce non-western / alternative concepts of peace and living in peace, like Ubuntu in Southern Africa and Buen Vivir in Andean countries, as well as means for peacebuilding and conflict transformation (see for example in Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures Lederach 1995 and Tom, 2013). Furthermore, the hourglass model can be presented to distinguish phases of conflict containment, settlement and transformation (Ramstbotham et al. in Renewable Resources and Conflict , 2012, p. 28 ).

Identifying inside and outside actors and top-down versus bottom-up approaches in peacebuilding and conflict transformation and discussing issues around local ownership, accountability and legitimacy (e.g. Lederach’s Actor Pyramid and Peacebuilding Initiative 2009 on overview of actors). Introducing and discussing do no harm and conflict sensitivity ( How to Guide to Conflict Sensitivity ). Presenting and discussing selected processes for conflict transformation and peacebuilding for example: Mediation, negotiation and dialogue / consensus building.

Natural Resource Management: Systems and Processes

This module is about learning the essentials of natural resource management and introducing different systems of NRM in (post-) conflict contexts. It should start by group or peer exchange on experiences or knowledge on NRM systems and processes, thus the rest of the module can build upon the experience in the room. It covers clarifying the meaning of NR management, governance and good / poor governance, discussing the difference between NRM structures (what exist / what is done in NRM) and NRM processes (how is NRM done) and how and when they become transparent and accountabe,

Structures Processes
Laws, policies, formal and informal institutions for NRM. For example: creation and maintenance of biodiversity conservation areas around contested territories, macroeconomic policies promoting structural change for sustainable, conflict sensitive and participatory NRM. Knowledge creation, practices of participatory and inclusive/exclusive NRM. For example: revenue management regarding non-renewable resources and extractive industries, usage of (sustainable) ecosystem services in conflict settings.

Table: Structures and Process of NRM (PeaceTraining.eu)

examples of technical approaches and scientific innovation to NRM. In addition, to the one’s participants present, the trainer may mention participatory 3D mapping in North Darfur, Sudan to improve water management, farming and grazing systems in a conflict-ridden region ( UNEP, 2016) project Digital Democracy, empowering marginalized communities to use technology to defend their rights through for example forest change monitoring or map & monitor remote territories of indigenous. Rapid Assessment Survey, helping to understand the status of a region’s biodiversity, the health of its ecosystems and the benefits that nature provides its inhabitants. The independent, third-party research introduced conservation to the peacebuilding agenda in the trans-boundary region of Peru and Ecuador (CI, 2017).

Case studies of effective versus ineffective, inclusive versus exclusive natural resource management are examined. Participants analyse the different structures and processes in NRM. The trainer may want to focus on either land, renewable or non-renewable natural resources or divide the participants in three groups, each covering one. Examples include Forest Management Units in Indonesia, which became pivotal structural elements for managing all state forests at the local level (Larry A. Fisher, Yeon-Su Kim, Sitti Latifah, and Madani Makarom, 2017.

Co-management model of natural resources in the Nino Konis Santana National Park conflict-affected communities in Timor-Leste (Conservation International). Conservation Agreement model implemented in Liberia’s East Nimba Nature Reserve (Conservation International). Land Management in Afghanistan: Community documentation of land tenure and its contribution to state building in Afghanistan. (Stanfield et al. 2013). DR Congo the dialogue process and agreement on sustainable resource use, involving NGOs, women and indigenous peoples’ representatives, local and traditional leaders, hunters, miners, religious leaders, international conservatio and officials from i.e. the Ministry of Environment, Education, Security, Interior and Defense in the Maiko-Tayna-Kahuzi-Biega landscape in DR Congo (Conservation International).

Context Analysis regarding Natural Resource Management in post-war / conflict situations

This module is about skills of conflict context analysis. Participants test different tools of context analysis to understand and assess natural resource conflicts and natural resource management in (post-) conflict settings. There is a variety of tools for conflict analysis and visualization. Depending on the availability of time, one visualization tools can be tested, such as the Stakeholder and Resource Conflict Mapping, Problem Tree or Iceberg (details in A Handbook and Toolkit For Practitioners Working In Aquatic Resource Systems or UN Conflict Analysis Practice Note 2016). For a more detailed context analysis, participants train to use a comprehensive context analysis framework on natural resources and/in conflict using the analytical framework by UN’s toolkit on Renewable Resources and Conflict (2012, p. 44) (see table below).

Participants conduct an analysis of a case example from their own working / living context. To increase local author and ownership, as well as accuracy of the analysis, involvement of local stakeholders, e.g. communities, leaders, government officials, is advisable. Participants can be introduced to participatory analysis by the case study of GIZ (former Ded & GTZ) and zfd in Mindanao, Philippines of 2009/2010. Participatory Community Peace and Conflict Assessment (PCPCA). For guidelines on the above mentioned joint mapping (ex: UNEP in Sudan) see The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (2009) Good Practice in Participatory Mapping.

The second part of this module is about understanding the importance of mapping current activities and competencies/capacities of key stakeholder concerning NRM. This forms a basis for strategy development, as actors should not duplicate initiatives and rather seek to cooperation and complement each other’s work.

Actors Capacities Activities regarding NRM
Local and national governments International Organisations e.g. EU, AU and UN bodies Technical expertise in NRM on the concerned natural resource (e.g. forest or minerals) Negotiation and mediation Dialogue and trust building
National and international donors and financial institutions e.g. World Bank, IMF, EU International NGOs Knowledge / awareness of laws, e.g. on environmental protection or land rights Capacity building & training Land restitution
National / local NGOs Conflict transformation and peacebuilding capacities e.g. on dialogue, mediation, advocacy or monitoring Peacebuilding & conflict transformation
Civil society organisations, community-based organisations or religious organisations Livelihood projects
Local elites or community leaders Conservation initiatives
Private sector e.g. local entrepreneurs and multinational companies Advocacy
Scientists / research institutes Monitoring
Technical & financial support
Sustainable Development Goals

This module is about strategy development and project planning to support / facilitate / build / strengthen conflict sensitive and participatory NRM. Based on examples of previous missions/projects and programmes in these areas, the module addresses i) what the practitioners do regarding NRM (), ii) with whom (which local stakeholders) and iii) how to do it (the process). Building upon the palette of peacebuilding activities, a “NRM peace palette” facilitated, supported, advised by external parties includes systems and processes for conflict sensitive and participatory NRM. Participants learn to be clear on what their organisation / mission focuses on.

What? Examples of 3rd Party Activities Who? Deciding for or with whom to engage How? Guidelines on designing processes
Consultancy on policy, laws, institutions, Mediation or negotiation on conflicts around NRM Facilitation of dialogue, trust and consensus building for NRM. Examples for dialogue building in A handbook and toolkit for practitioners working in aquatic resource systems (Rüttinger et al. 2014, p.46-53) Capacity development / training on conflict sensitive and participatory NRM Advocacy for or empowerment of marginalized groups, Monitoring performance of government, private sector and civil society organisations regarding their performance and sustainability of NRM and verifying implementation of agreements e.g. on conservation agreement Technical & financial support Which groups and then which representatives of them should be invited / take part? Do the “representatives” or leaders really represent the larger group? What are the interest of the groups and representative? How feasible is it to have a gender balance? Donor agencies often require gender-balanced groups, yet it may not be feasible due to cultural restriction or simply that are mostly/only men involved in NRM and peacebuilding issues. What are ways to solve this? Should and if so how can armed actors be involved? How to address and include private businesses? For examples see the policy brief by Collaborating for Resilience (2014) Engaging the private sector to address conflict in natural resource management, Are there potential spoilers and how could they be addressed? Conflict sensitive: Not just the NRM has to be conflict sensitive, but also the intervention process of supporting / facilitating / strengthening the development or improvement of NRM systems in a given country. Cultural sensitivity and value for local/traditional approaches to NRM Participation & local ownership: Local author and ownership in selection, decision-making and implementation of the appropriate tools is key to success. Projects should not be an imposition of a new NRM system by a third party. Gender mainstreaming: For examples see the policy brief by Collaborating for Resilience (2014) Supporting gender-inclusive dialogue over natural resource management – Transforming relationships / creating networks: considering power dynamics and shared history Cooperation and exchange with other actors in the field, local and international partners, private sector, scientists and research institutes etc.

Table: Conflict sensitive and participatory NRM

What, Who and How?

Case studies offering lessons learned on NRM and peacebuilding include Mercy Crops: Inclusive Natural Resource Management Program (INRM) in Myanmar Strengthening Aquatic Resource Governance (STARGO) project: Facilitating multi-stakeholder dialogue to manage natural resource competition – A synthesis of lessons from Uganda, Zambia, and Cambodia and Dialogue to address the roots of resource competition: Lessons for policy and practice

UNEP: Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan Furthermore, participants learn about potential challenges in the process and how to address and overcome them.

These may include:

  • Legitimacy of third, external party and those who initiate, lead the NRM activity
  • Accountability and transparency
  • Insecurity and violence – presence of criminal and / or other armed groups
  • Corruption
  • Conflicting interests regarding NR of involved actors have
  • Conflicting ideals of environmental protection and conservation of natural resources and positive effects of exploiting resources for example the creation of jobs

Workshop

The last task in this module is the elaboration of a personalized work plan of each participant, corresponding to their organisational background, mission or project, country and concerned natural resource. In this “workshop session” Participants train strategy development and project design and planning, developing their strategy for their own real case. Building upon the previous input around context analysis, participants are asked to develop a strategy for their work / organisation, defining with whom to engage how as well as identifying potential challenges and proposing ideas to meet them. Lastly, for an individual assessment of these strategies or concrete project plans, participants are asked to do a SWOT analysis. For guidelines on strategy development tools as well as SWOT see A handbook and toolkit for practitioners working in aquatic resource systems (Rüttinger et al. 2014, p. 54-59).

Reflective Practice & Basics of Monitoring & Evaluation

This module focusses bridging monitoring and evaluation (M&E) tools as applied for peacebuilding project with those M&E tools used on NRM. Participants are asked to share their organisation’s practice on M&E regarding projects / missions on NRM in post-war and conflict settings. Depending on the level of prior experience and knowledge on how to design and complete M&E, the trainer either first provides input and guidelines on M&E or directly let participants prepare an M&E process for a real or fictional case. Content-wise the module should cover learning and testing principles of reflective peacebuilding practice, which especially concerns attitudes of do no harm, sensitivity towards conflict and culture - generally personal skills of self-reflection and learning. For guidance consult Reflective Peacebuilding: A Planning, Monitoring, And Learning Toolkit (Lederach et al., 2007) combining M&E tools from the peacebuilding field with M&E for natural resource management and learn how to use them. Common elements of both M&E schemes are specifying out the theory of change, setting a baseline to compare the changes over time (before and after the intervention), defining indicators, using different methods for M&E and lastly acting upon the lessons identified. The challenges is to integrate theory of change, baseline and indicators of peacebuilding and conflict transformation with those of NRM. Imagine a project on dialogue promotion for equal and sustainable land use by two communities, which are in (violent) conflict with each other over the land: From a NRM perspective, land titles as well as sustainable use of the land lie at the centre of the project as well as M&E. Indicators would be centred around the creation and enforcement of laws and regulations on land title or institution to monitor the sustainable use of the land. From a peacebuilding and conflict transformation perspective, relevant indicators concern for example improved inter-group dialogue and cooperation as well as the existence of spaces and structures for non-violent communication and dispute resolution regarding the resource conflict. For M&E in NRM see Participatory monitoring and evaluation for natural resource management and research (Guijt 1999) and Evaluation framework for CMA natural resource management (Australian Department of Environment and Climate Change 2009) for a case study introducing and testing different M&E methods, for instance interviews, focus Groups, Diaries/ Reports, Questionnaires/Surveys, storytelling, photos and videos documentation, for M&E in group exercises. For details on methods see A handbook and toolkit for practitioners working in aquatic resource systems (Rüttinger et al. 2014, p. 28-31).

References: (those that are not in embedded with a URL in the text)
Lederach, J. P. (1995). Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press.
Tom, P. (2013). A ‘post-liberal peace’ via Ubuntu? Peacebuilding. www.tandfonline.com
Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science. science.sciencemag.org
Stanfield, J. D., Brick Murtazashvili, J., Safar, M. Y. and Salam, A. (2013). Community documentation of land tenure and its contribution to state building in Afghanistan. In Land and post conflict peacebuilding, ed. J. Unruh and R. C. Williams. London: Earthscan.
Course Levels
Beginner / Entry Basic knowledge and awareness on the issue of conflict sensitive and participatory natural resource management.
Intermediate / Advanced The curriculum as designed is on the intermediate level as it requires experiences in NRM and peacebuilding. It is designed for competence development merging CPPB competencies with NRM, namely structures and processes for conflict sensitive and participatory natural resource management in (post-) conflict settings.
Expert / Specialisation Specialized training on 1) competence development regarding a particular type of natural resources Conflict sensitive and participatory management of land Conflict sensitive and participatory management of renewable natural resources (e.g. forests, fishery, agriculture, illicit drug cultivation)Conflict sensitive and participatory management non-renewable natural resources (extractive industries, 2) a particular region / country e.g. West, East or sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, The Caribbean. Examples include: the CI Workshop in the Philippines, which linked taught skills with cultural and geographical issues specific to CI Philippines projects. Conflict Sensitive Conservation Training of CI in Colombia (only in Spanish)

Conflict and Cultural Sensitivity

As the topic of this curriculum includes conflict sensitivity it is particularly important that participants also know how this applies to their own activities in the field. The issue of Do No Harm as it relates to Resource Transfers is directly addressed. This SC also takes into account how to introduce the issue of NRM and environmental consciousness into the different cultural contexts of the mission/project as this could be a potentially sensitive topic and an opportunity to link the content of the course to the local traditions and connections to the wider environment.

Sensitivity to Participants Backgrounds

For this course, the trainer has to make sure to be responsive to the different background of participants and experiences with NRM and peacebuilding. Depending on the group, they might be experts on NRM with little experiences working in conflict settings or on peacebuilding or vice versa peacebuilding practitioners with limited knowledge about natural resources or experiences on NRM.

Gender

Gender should be mainstreamed throughout the modules. That means for example discussing how natural resources and conflict around them influence men, women, boys and girls well as how these groups can be involved in NRM. Listed case studies in Women and Natural Resources. Unlocking the Peacebuilding Potential (UNEP, UN Women, PBSO and UNDP 2013, p.17-43) include:

  • Legality versus reality: Implementing women’s land rights in Uganda
  • Safeguarding gender equality gains for ex-combatants in post-conflict Nepal
  • Women in agriculture in post-conflict Aceh, Indonesia
  • Gender dynamics in water management in the West Bank
  • Women’s roles in the peace process in Bougainville, Papua New Guinea
  • Women’s participation in the artisanal mining sector in post-conflict Sierra Leone
  • Women’s participation in decision-making on forest management in Liberia
  • Supporting sustainable livelihoods for women through natural resource management in Burundi
  • Engaging women in natural resource management and conflict resolution processes in South Kordofan, Sudan
  • Protecting women from exposure to sexual violence while gathering natural resources in Darfur
  • The perils of the charcoal trade in North Kivu, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Improving women’s health and reducing deforestation in Afghanistan
  • Land reparations for rural and indigenous women in Colombia
  • Investing in women to support food security in Côte d’Ivoire

Below are further materials and some case studies that particularly examine gender and / or women in NRM in post-war / conflict settings.

Examples of Gender-focused Literature

Title Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
Activity Handbook: interactive methods for collecting gender-related information for conservation projects Conservation International 2017 docs.google.com
Checklist for integration gender into conservation programming Conservation International 2016 docs.google.com
Coordinating land and water governance for food security and gender equality Madiodio Niasse, Global Water Partnership 2017 docs.google.com
Gender e-Learning Course Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) www.fao.org
Gender and Conservation Conservation International drive.google.com
Gender Equality and Inclusion in Water Resources Management - Action Piece Melita Grant, Global Water Partnership 2017 www.gwp.org
Gender in Conservation & Development. In the Solomon Islands Whitney Anderson, Duta Bero Kauhiona; Conservation International 2016 docs.google.com
Gender Integration in Conservation Agreements: Alto Mayo Protected Forest - Peru Margarita Mora, Conservation International 2014 docs.google.com
Gender Mainstreaming UN Environment docs.google.com
Gender mainstreaming within CI-Green Climate Fund projects Conservation International 2017 docs.google.com
Gender Survey Report. Kwaraiwa and Dawson Island Communities Whitney Anderson, Conservation International 2015 docs.google.com
Gender-Based Violence Handout Conservation International drive.google.com
Gender-based violence: recognizing and responding to gender-based violence (GBV) in community conservation Conservation International drive.google.com
Gender-integrated conservation: CI’s field demonstration projects Conservation International 2017 docs.google.com
Getting to equal participation: tips for supporting women’s engagement in conservation Conservation International drive.google.com
Guidance for Gender Based Violence (GBV) Monitoring and Mitigation within Non-GBV Focused Sectoral Programming Care 2014 www.care.org
Guidance for mainstreaming gender in CI’s Global Environment Facility projects Conservation International 2017 docs.google.com
Guidelines for integrating gender into conservation programming Also available in FR, SP, PT Conservation International drive.google.com
Incorporating Gender into monitoring and evaluation Also available in FR, SP, PT Conservation International drive.google.com
Integrating Gender in Funding Proposals Also available in FR, SP, PT Conservation International drive.google.com
Lessons Learned. Gender & Natural Resources Conservation International drive.google.com
Men and Women as Conservation Partners in Conflict Settings (Spanish only) Brittany Ajroud, Kame Westerman & Janet Edmond; Conservation International 2015 drive.google.com
Peace, Gender and Natural Resource Management – Video Conservation International sites.google.com
Supporting Indigenous Women in Conservation Conservation International drive.google.com
The Gendered Construction of Reparations: An Exploration of Women's Exclusion from the Niger Delta Reintegration Processes Olakunle Michael Folami 2016 papers.ssrn.com
Trainer Manual. Mainstreaming Gender into Peacebuilding Trainings Dr. Cordula Reimann, CORE 2016 www.zif-berlin.org
Training manual on gender and climate change Aguilar Revelo, Lorena/International Union for Conservation of Nature 2009 portals.iucn.org
Women and Climate Change. Impact and Agency in Human Rights, Security, and Economic Development Mayesha Alam, Rukmani Bhatia, and Briana Mawby; The Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace & Security 2015 giwps.georgetown.edu
Women and Natural Resources. Unlocking the Peacebuilding Potential UNEP, UN Women, PBSO and UNDP 2013 www.unwomen.org
Women as agents of peace in natural resource conflict in Sudan UN Environment 2017 www.unenvironment.org

Examples of Conflict Sensitivity Literature

Title Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
Conflict-Sensitive Conservation: Practitioners' Manual International Institute for Sustainable Development 2009 www.iisd.org
Conflict-Sensitive Program Management CSPM, Integrating Conflict Sensitivity and Prevention of Violence into SDC Programs – A Handbook for Practitioners. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, SDC 2006 www.eda.admin.ch
Fact Sheet Conflict Sensitivity Center for Peacebuilding, KOFF 2012 koff.swisspeace.ch
How to guide to conflict sensitivity Conflict Sensitivity Consortium 2012 local.conflictsensitivity.org
Selection of case studies on Conflict-Sensitive Conservation International Institute for Sustainable Development, IIDS 2002 www.iisd.org
Do no harm in land tenure and property rights: Designing and implementing conflict sensitive land programs. Goddard, N.& Lempke, M., CDA 2013 cdacollaborative.org
Strengthening capacity for conflict-sensitive natural resource management. Toolkit and guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. UN Interagency Framework Team for Preventive Action 2012 www.un.org

Elicitive Approach: It is important to building on participants’ prior knowledge and experiences. Case studies / examples can be those suggested by participants, in the survey. This includes the decision on which countries or region to use as examples as well as the type of natural resource (land, renewable, non-renewable). Subject matter experts, e.g. experts in NRM or peacebuilders, to demonstrate a particular approach of conflict sensitive and participatory NRM, sharing insights on best practices and challenges or an “academic” expert, who can teach theory very well. The trainer should take the role of facilitator, guiding the learning processes and be flexible and open to adapt to the participant’s needs. When discussing the tools and methods to achieve conflict sensitive and participatory NRM systems, awareness has to be raised that there is no blue print / one-size-fits-all solutions. Natural resources management systems have to respond to and build on local cultural, structures and traditions to gain legitimacy and to be effective.

This SC represents an innovative curriculum, as it is one of the first training programmes of its kind in the field, combining training on competencies in natural resource management and peacebuilding and conflict transformation. It hereby covers more than knowledge on natural resources and its links to knowledge, but trains attitudes, skills and knowledge in depth. Additionally, the SC is up-to-date and innovation as is uses blended learning, on-site and online components of learning and assessment. A third aspect of innovation consists of the implementation in this SC of systemic approach to analysis, which is one of the front of the field components. Furthermore, the sub-curriculum offers a variety of case studies from different countries, regions and types of natural resources. Hence it can be easily tailored for a training on conflict sensitive and participatory NRM in a specific region. Lastly, the case studies of participatory NRM systems and processes include some that explicitly aim at fostering local ownership, for example UNEP’s participatory 3D mapping in North Darfur, Sudan.

The SC aside from training includes: The practical implementation phase of the work plan, developed under module 6. Links to free e-learning courses and self-study guides are offered to the participants (listed below) After the training, a “peer-review” system and mentoring process can be established where peacebuilding trainees would be paired with a NR expert. This peer-to-peer support can already be started during the on-site training. Alternatively, participants could undergo a mentoring process from a local practitioner of their own or partnering organisations.

Civilian / NGO

International NGOs as external actors often engage in bottom-up peacebuilding approaches, seeking to empower local community actors as well as marginalized groups, through for example capacity building, advocacy or peace education. These internal actors, such as national civil society organisations, community-based organisations and local leaders are central to effective and sustainable natural resource usage and management, since the communities’ livelihood is directly depended on the ecosystem services (e.g. fishery), as well as jobs around exploitation and trade of natural resources. Conflicts and violence around these resources manifest themselves and often start at the local, grassroots level. By equipping staff of international NGOs as well as local leaders in environmental peacebuilding with the combined competencies of peacebuilding and NRM, they will be more prepared to meet the challenges of conflicts with involve natural resources in countries like Sudan, Afghanistan or the Philippines. Taking part in this training, prepares participants for NRM in post-war / conflict settings by also raising awareness about the importance of national, macro-level structures and processes for conflict sensitive and participatory NRM.

EEAS / Diplomats / Civil Servants

Diplomats, civil servants and international staff working in CSDP missions or EU delegations often engage in peacebuilding activities, such as advisory, capacity-building, mediation and negotiation, at the top-level with national and regional governmental actors, representatives from ministries or high-level politicians. Top-down solutions to conflict sensitive and participatory NRM and peacebuilding, for example regarding national policies, laws on environmental protection, land titles and macroeconomic policies on non-renewable resources and their trade are as important as bottom-up approaches, supported by NGOs. The challenge is to achieve participation, consultation and inclusion of the grass roots in the decision-making processes and institution building on NRM at the state level. A training on conflict sensitive and participatory NRM for diplomats and civil servants, as well as state representatives from the conflict context, is a step towards mutual understanding and acknowledging the importance of top-down and bottom-up engagement and cooperation for effective peacebuilding and sustainable NRM.

Military / Armed Forces

At first sight, armed forces may not seem to play a major role in conflict sensitive and participator NRM. Yet, as seen below the environment also plays an increasing role in military operations and the NATO is already offering courses around environmental management for military forces and environmental awareness. Additionally, participating in training on NRM may be beneficial for those troops and/or military advisors, which engage in armed conflicts around natural resources. It is relevant when it concerns the protection of local, civilian population from armed groups that finances themselves with contrabands or in situations in which civilians, like farmers, who are not armed actors, grow illicit crops, like poppy in Afghanistan or Colombia. Especially in the context of Afghanistan this plays a major role, as poppy fields were often destroyed by military forces, without providing alternatives for farmers. Armed forces, deployed in these regions, should be awareness about the complex links between natural resources, armed conflict and the involved actors.

Furthermore, military may be engaged in preventing and countering attacks against oil pipelines. For effective military engagement in-depth understanding of the drivers for violence as well as the NR contexts are crucial, in particular regarding the roles civilian and military play and which form civil-military cooperation can take in NRM in violent conflicts. Generally, for military an adapted version of this sub-curriculum or certain modules such as the introductory one can be beneficial for more effective and sensitive engagement in conflicts around natural resources.

Police

Similar to involvement of military, police may not have an obvious link to natural resource management in post-war / conflict settings. Yet, in these contexts policing, and especially community policing, is important for the enforcement as well as monitoring of laws and regulations regarding NR exploitation and protection. Foreign police, deployed via CSDP, OSCE or UN mission can engage in training of local police as well as in advice, consultancy on and monitoring of agreements, laws and their enforcement on NRM and peacebuilding. Certain modules of this sub-curriculum, e.g. on strategies for NRM, could be included in police training, for those deployed in conflict resource contexts.

Experts & Trainers

Name, Surname Organisation / Institution URL (if available)
Alexander CARIUS Adelphi founder and Managing Director, consultant on environmental and development policy www.adelphi.de
Carl BRUCH Director, International Programs, Environmental Law Institute www.eli.org
Daniel Orellana AGUIRRE Independent Psychologist and Psychotherapist, experienced in training staff in international cooperation
David JENSEN Head, Environmental Cooperation for Peacebuilding Program, United Nations Environment Program UNEP (DJ), Training Support www.unenvironment.org
Erika WEINTHAL Lee Hill Snowdon Professor of Environmental Policy, Associate Dean for International Programs; Duke University nicholas.duke.edu
Experts-Database Swiss Agency for development and cooperation www.eda.admin.ch
Franziska SIGRIST Training Coordinator, KOFF Center for Peacebuilding, SwissPeace www.swisspeace.ch
Günter SCHOENEGG Peace Resources Group www.peaceresources.net
Harald LOSSACK GIZ Expert on Managing Natural Resource & Climate www.giz.de
Helmut ALBERT GIZ Expert on agricultural policy and rural areas www.giz.de
Janet EDMOND Conversation International Senior Director of Peace and Development Partnerships Program sites.google.com
Jessica HARTOG International Alert Head of Natural Resource Management and Climate Change www.international-alert.org
Jörg LINKE GIZ Expert climate www.giz.de
Kame WESTERMAN Gender and Conservation Advisor, Conservation International www.conservation.org
Ken CONCA Professor of International Affairs, American University focus i.e. on environmental peacebuilding, environmental politics and policy in the United Nations system and water governance www.american.edu
Lukas RÜTTINGER AdelphiSenior Project Manager leading the area of peace and security, and resources www.adelphi.de
Marc LEVY Deputy Director, Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University beta.global.columbia.edu
Michael ROSENAUER GIZ Expert on Water www.giz.de
Nicolás CISNEROS Project Advisor, Environmental Cooperation for Peacebuilding Program, United Nations Environment Program UNEP web.unep.org
Oli BROWN Consultant, United Nations Environment Program UNEP / Chatham House (OB) www.unenvironment.org
Richard MATTHEW Director, Blum Center for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development, University of California Irvine faculty.sites.uci.edu
Silja HALLE Coordinator of Women, Natural Resources and Peace, UN Environment www.unenvironment.org
Simone LINDORFER Independent trauma therapist and international trainer; consultant on psychosocial trauma work befreiungspsychologie.net
Stefan KRALL GIZ Expert in Sustainable Natural Resource Management www.giz.de
Title Organisation / Institution Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
Assessing and Restoring Natural Resources in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding David Jensen, Steve Lonergan (UNEP) 2012 environmentalpeacebuilding.org 0
A Landscape Perspective on Monitoring and Evaluation for Sustainable Land Management – Trainer’s Manual New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) 2014 www.nepad.org
An Uncommon Peace: Environment, Development, and the Global Security Agenda in Environment Geoffrey D. Dabelko 2008 www.environmentmagazine.org
Breaking the Conflict Trap Paul Collier 2003 www.pucsp.br
Building Markets for Conflict Free Goods. In: Trade, Aid and Security: an agenda for peace and development. Duncan Brack, Gavin Hayman 2007 www.iisd.org
Building Peace Through Environmental Peacemaking (Chapter 8) In: The Worldwatch Institute: State of the World Ken Conca, Alexander Carius, and Geoffrey D. Dabelko 2005 www.worldwatch.org
Civilian Protection, Environmental Pollution and Conflict – A Role for the Public Health Community Doug Weir 2015 www.tandfonline.com
Climate Change and Conflict: Findings and Lessons Learned from five Case Studies in seven Countries USAID/Foundation for Environmental Security & Sustainability 2014 www.fess-global.org
Conflict Prevention & Peacebuilding in the Maiko-Tayna-Kahuzi-Biega Landscape in the Democratic Republic of Congo Conservation International drive.google.com
Conflict Prevention in Resource-Rich Economies. The Role of Economic Policy. Self-Study Learning Module UNEP-EU www.un.org
Coordinating land and water governance for food security and gender equality Madiodio Niasse, Global Water Partnership 2017 www.gwp.org
Environmental Peacebuilding with Communities Around the East Nimba Nature Reserve in Liberia Jessica Donovan, Eduard Niesten; Conservation International drive.google.com
Environmental Peacebuilding with Communities Around the East Nimba Nature Reserve in Liberia - Summary Conservation International drive.google.com
Environmental Peacebuilding: Country Case Studies Conservation International drive.google.com
Environmental Peacemaking: Conditions for Success Alexander Carius; Environmental Change and Security Program 2007 www.wilsoncenter.org
Equity in Extractives. Stewarding Africa’s natural resources for all. Executive Summary Africa Progress Panel 2013 www.africaprogresspanel.org
Establishing Peace Conditions for the Management & Governance of Carrasco National Park, Bolivia Conservation International drive.google.com
Executive Summary: Equity in Extractives. Stewarding Africa’s natural resources for all Africa Progress Panel 2013 www.africaprogresspanel.org
Extractive Industries and Conflict. Toolkit and Guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. UN-EU Guidance note 2012 postconflict.unep.ch
Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development WWF 2011 d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net
Field-Guide: 3 Steps for working in fragile and conflict-affected situations (WFCS) Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation; KOFF, Center for Peacebuilding 2013 assets.helvetas.ch
From Conflict to Peacebuilding: The Role of Natural Resources and Environment UNEP 2009 www.un.org
Green Tool Box SIDA 2016 www.sida.se
High-Value Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Päivi Lujala, Siri Aas Rustad (UNEP) 2012 environmentalpeacebuilding.org
How to guide to conflict sensitivity Conflict Sensitivity Consortium 2012 local.conflictsensitivity.org
Increasing the Link between Peacebuilding and the Environment Conservation International 2015 drive.google.com
Integrated water resources management (IWRM) toolbox Global Water Partnership 2017 www.gwp.org
Land and Conflict. Toolkit and Guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. UN-EU Guidance note 2012 postconflict.unep.ch
Land and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Jon Unruh, Rhodri C. Williams (UNEP) 2013 environmentalpeacebuilding.org
Land Tenure Security in Selected Countries – Global Report Global Land Tool Network 2015 gltn.net
Lifting the resource curse: how poor people can and should benefit from the revenues of extractive industries. OXFAM 2009 www.oxfam.org
Livelihoods, Natural Resources, and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Helen Young, Lisa Goldman (UNEP) 2015 environmentalpeacebuilding.org
Manual: 3 Steps for Working in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations (WFCS) Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation; KOFF, Center for Peacebuilding 2013 assets.helvetas.ch
Marine and coastal wetlands : education network, capacity building, and training International Union for Conservation of Nature 2006 portals.iucn.org
Monitoring Tenure Security with Indicator 1.4.2 Global Land Tool Network 2017 gltn.net
National Drought Management Policy Guidelines – A Template for Action Donald A. Wilhite, WMO/GWP 2014 www.droughtmanagement.info
Natural resource governance training manual International Union for Conservation of Nature 2011 portals.iucn.org
Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan UNEP-EU 2013 staging.unep.org
Natural Resource Management in a post-conflict and fragile state: case study from Timor-Leste Rui Pinto; Conservation International drive.google.com
Natural resource management in transition settings UNDG-ECHA 2013 www.un.org
Natural Resources and Conflict. A guide for mediation practitioners. UNEP 2015 postconflict.unep.ch
Natural Resources and Peacebuilding PBSO, UNEP 2013 postconflict.unep.ch
Natural Resources and Peacebuilding: Is the United Nations united? (TedTalk / Video) David Jensen 2013 www.youtube.com
Natural Riches? Perspectives on Responsible Natural Resource Management in Conflict-affected Countries World Economic Forum 2013 www3.weforum.org
Negotiating natural resources for peace: Ownership, control and wealth-sharing Nicholas Haysom, Sean Kane; Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue 2009 comparativeconstitutionsproject.org
Peace & Conservation in the Cordillera del Condor Border Region between Ecuador & Peru Conservation International drive.google.com
Protected area management training in West and Central Africa : impacts and recommendations International Union for Conservation of Nature 2015 portals.iucn.org
Protected area staff training : guidelines for planning and management Danilina, Natalia R., Kopylova, Svetlana L./International Union for Conservation of Nature 2011 portals.iucn.org
Protecting the Environment During Armed Conflict. An Inventory and Analysis of International Law UNEP 2009 postconflict.unep.ch
Renewable Resources and Conflict. Toolkit and Guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. UN-EU Guidance note 2012 postconflict.unep.ch
Scoping and Status Study on Land and Conflict Global Land Tool Network 2016 gltn.net
Small Countries and Big Resources: Harnessing Natural Resources for Development in the g7+ Countries Paul Collier 2012 environmentalpeacebuilding.org
Social Identity, Natural Resources and Peacebuilding. Arthur Green 2010 citeseerx.ist.psu.edu
Strengthening Capacity for Conflict-Sensitive Natural Resource Management. Toolkit and Guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. UN-EU Guidance note 2012 postconflict.unep.ch
Sustainable Land and Water Management: The CAADP Pillar I Framework New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) 2009 www.nepad.org
Sustainable Land Management in Practice: Guidelines and Best Practices for Sub-Saharan Africa New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) 2011 www.nepad.org
Tech Tools for Environmental Peacebuilding (Summary of the Environmental Peacebuilding Session) Conservation International 2015 drive.google.com
Technical Report Sierra Leone Environment, Conflict and Peacebuilding Assessment UNEP 2009 postconflict.unep.ch
The Local Community and Challenges of Torrential Floods Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe 2015 www.osce.org
The political ecology of war: natural resources and armed conflicts Philippe Le Billon 2001 ac.els-cdn.com
The Political Economy of the Resource Curse. Michael L. Ross 1999 www.sscnet.ucla.edu
Toolkit containing training instructions and materials on the subject of collaborative planning in natural resources and environmental management planning. Copack 2012 copack.oamk.fi/
Tools for Conflict Mitigation (Summary of the Environmental Peacebuilding Session) Conservation International 2015 drive.google.com
Tools for Conflict Mitigation from the Development Field (Summary of the Environmental Peacebuilding Session) Conservation International 2015 drive.google.com
Training of Trainers Manual- Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding in Rwanda USAID 2012 www.dmeforpeace.org
Transforming Risks into Co-operation ENVSEC/ Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe 2013 www.osce.org
Water & Conflict. A Toolkit For Programming USAID 2014 www.usaid.gov
Water and Land Management in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations Andreas Graf, Center for Peacebuilding/Koff 2012 www.files.ethz.ch
Water and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Erika Weinthal, Jessica Troell, Mikiyasu Nakayama (UNEP) 2014 environmentalpeacebuilding.org
Working with conflict-affected communities in Nino Konis Santana National Park, Timor-Leste Conservation International drive.google.com
Мedia, Gender and the Reporting of Emergencies Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe 2017 www.osce.org
Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Course Title Link to Course Outline (if available)
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Bio-Architecture and Urban Planning e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Bio-Assessment of Technology e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Bio-Ethics e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Biopolis – Sustainable Urban Development e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Bio-Tourism e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.grg
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Environmental Education for Sustainable Development in Turkey e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Environmental Legislation e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Health and the Environment e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Natural Resources – Soil and Water e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) People with a Disability in Modern Society elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Renewable Energy Sources e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Sustainable Agricultural Production – The Case of Montenegro e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Biopolitics International Organisation (B.I.O.) Sustainable Forest Protection and Management e-Learning elearning.biopolitics.gr
Cap-Net (Virtual Campus) GEMI Webinar Series for SDG6 “Ensure access to water and sanitation for all” e-Learning campus.cap-net.org
Conservation International Environmental Peacebuilding sites.google.com
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Agricultural Statistics e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Animal Production and Health e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Capacity Development e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Climate Change e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Communication e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Crop Improvement e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food and Nutrition Security Analysis e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food and Nutrition Security Foundations e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food Safety e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food Safety e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Gender e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Geospatial Data for Land Monitoring e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Information Management and Knowledge Sharing e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Nutrition and Food Systems e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Productive Employment and Decent Work e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Responsible Governance of Tenure e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Right to Food e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Social Analysis e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Social Protection and Resilience e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Trade, Market and Investments e-Learning www.fao.org
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Humanitarian Coordination e-Learning www.fao.org
Global Water Partnership Capacity building in Integrated Urban Water Management www.gwp.org
Global Water Partnership Capacity building in International Water Law www.gwp.org
NATO SCHOOL Oberammergau (NSO) Environmental Management for Military Forces www.natoschool.nato.int
NATO Introduction to Environmental Awareness e-Learning www.natoschool.nato.int
NATO, US Army Corps of engineers and the German MoD under the auspices of the NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence (2016) Energy Security Strategic Awareness Course www.natoschool.nato.int
Regional Community Forestry Training Centre for Asia and the Pacific Forest conflict and governance www.recoftc.org
SDG Academy Environmental Security and Sustaining Peace (first delivery in March 2018) 8-week massive open online course (MOOC) courses.sdgacademy.org
SwissPeace Preventing and Resolving Natural Resource Conflicts (lastly delivered in 2013) environmentalpeacebuilding.org
UNESCO From Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential (PCCP) www.unesco.org
UNITAR Environment, Natural Resources and UN Peacekeeping Operations: Restoring the Governance of Natural Resources e-Learning 4 Jan 2017 www.learnatunitar.org
UNITAR Introduction to Environment, Natural Resources and UN Peacekeeping Operations e-learning Course 4 Jan 2017 www.learnatunitar.org
UNSSC Equitable Management of High-Value Natural Resources: A Recipe for Peace? e-Learning environmentalpeacebuilding.org
UNSSC Land, Natural Resources, and Conflict Prevention Self-paced e-Learning environmentalpeacebuilding.org
UNSSR Land, natural resources and conflict prevention e-Learning portals.unssc.org

Introduction

Empirical research has shown that natural resources are correlated with (armed) conflict and violence in several ways: they may trigger, exacerbate or prolong conflicts . The link between natural resources (NR) and conflict is at least twofold: Firstly, the environment and natural resources are increasingly under pressure due to demographic changes (population growth), urbanization, migration as well as increasing, faster and widespread natural resource depletion and pollution, for example desertification cation due to climate change. This in turn creates potential for conflict and armed violence over, for example, land tenure and access to water which may themselves further or fuel grievances such as food insecurity. One example are conflicts (that at times turn violent) between pastoralist communities in the Horn of Africa over depleting water resources and grazing land (examples in Mkutu, 2001 & Bevan, 2007). Moreover, protests over pollution due to natural resource extraction (e.g. oil spills) and following grievances may turn violent and additionally meet with violent reactions by state security forces (as in the Niger Delta). Secondly, natural resources can become conflict resources, contributing to exacerbation and/or continuation of armed conflict that has many root causes beyond the resources. In that regard the systematic exploitation and / or trade in the contexts of armed conflict often contribute or result in serious and widespread human rights violations. The growth, production and trade of narcotics in Afghanistan and the mining and trade of diamonds in Sierra Leone are examples for conflict resources.

Graphic: Natural Resources & Armed Conflict

Natural Resources and Armed Conflict

Natural resources are categorized into:


Natural Resources and Armed Conflict Prevention at the Community Level

Prevention aims at avoiding lapse, escalation, spread, intensification or re-escalation/relapse of violence. One distinguishes between structural, long-term prevention, for example through the establishment of local councils for inter/intra community dialogue and direct or operational prevention to stop the escalation, spread or intensification of violence, through for example mediation and negotiation. Community-based solutions to prevention are particularly relevant, as communities are the ones directly affected and involved regarding the natural resources and suffering e.g. from depletion and pollution. The engagement with and of communities lies at the heart of effective prevention activities.

By the end of the course, participants should be able to understand and explain how natural resources link to violence / armed conflict; recognise differences between different types of natural resource conflicts around land, renewables and non-renewables; identify and analyse relevant stakeholders and conflict drivers in a particular context; select and apply strategies for structural/long-term and/or operational prevention of natural resource-based conflicts at the community level (respective the type of natural resource);understand context-specific and appropriate strategies, options and mechanisms to empower and support communities in prevention of natural resource-based conflict use appropriate technologies and innovative approaches for prevention of violent / armed conflicts over/around natural resources; elaborate a context-specific strategies for their mission, organisational or personal project in the context of prevention of natural resource-based conflicts.

Natural resources play a key role in many conflicts, yet to date no curricula has been developed to specifically address how European and EU institutions, missions and stakeholders can best support local communities and relevant stakeholders in the prevention of natural resources based or linked conflicts. This curricula addresses a key gap in training and need of missions and agencies in the field. This sub-curriculum provide provides comprehensive, robust knowledge and understanding of the issues, practical skills appropriate for missions and agencies to assist the development of customized, context-specific responses, and rich learning from field-based experience. It is vital for missions and practitioners engaging in contexts, where natural resources are a cause, driver or contributor to conflicts and the potential for armed violence or war.

The sub-curriculum on Preventing Natural Resource-Based Conflict at the Community Level is particularly relevant to mission set-up, strategic planning of missions / projects, and pre-deployment period training for staff/missions. It is also relevant in contexts of current/on-going armed conflict and in post-war stabilisation and peace consolidation phases, where natural resources may become issues of contention or trigger or fuel further escalation/intensification and spread of fighting or renewal of violence in post-war contexts. If applied and implemented with key decision makers it is particularly relevant in mission planning and design phases or following identification of natural-resources as key drivers/factors in potential outbreak, escalation or renewal of violence. Furthermore, the curriculum is relevant for staff operationally responsible for technical / thematic aspects around community development, natural resource and prevention and community-based or national early warning and prevention systems. In post-war peace consolidation / stabilisation contexts, the sub-curriculum may be additionally relevant for training and capacity building support for local and national stakeholders

Primary target groups:

Civilian CPPB mission staff (of NGOs, governmental or EU deployment organisations), who (will) work in community development in the area of natural resources and conflict / violence prevention. Local, community leaders and local policy-makers, living / working in areas with previous, latent / potential conflicts over / around natural resources. Mission leadership and those involved in mission design and strategic planning

Those, who can be targeted as well:

Policy-makers from the local and national authorities resources or with peacebuilding/conflict transformation (e.g. Environmental Commissions/Departments, Local Peace Councils)representatives of the extractive industry (private, international companies) operating in (post-) conflict settings. Personnel in (sustainable) development cooperation of NGOs, UN or governmental organisations,working on issues of natural resource management, community development / resilience and conflictprevention. Personnel in police or military / peacekeeping missions in areas where natural resource conflicts may play a role in triggering, escalating, fuelling or renewing local or national leve conflict dynamics.

Trainers and training institutions should principally consider utilisation of this sub-curriculum in contexts where i) natural resources currently play a role in conflict dynamics or have historically played a role in triggering armed conflict and where the causes, drivers and context of such violence remain likely to cause future violence; and where ii) early warning, situational assessments or peace and conflict analysis have indicated a potential role for natural resources in triggering violence or intensifying conflict in the future. Additionally, this sub-curriculum is relevant for training centres and institutions, who offer specialisation courses in different areas of conflict prevention and peacebuilding interventions. They could expand their training catalogue with courses on natural resource conflicts and prevention. A further specialization can be to focus on a particular region, country or type of natural resource. Furthermore, the sub-curriculum is relevant for academic institutions and universities, offering courses on natural resources, natural resource management, conflict management, conflict prevention and peacebuilding to better improve graduate’s development of professional competencies needed for improved field performance / engagement.

Missions and organisations may particularly choose to have personnel trained in this area, if they work in community-based conflict / violence prevention, community development and resilience as well as natural resource management - and specifically in contexts where natural-resources play an important or significant/relevant role in driving, intensifying or fuelling conflict. In cases where peace and conflict analysis, as situational needs assessments or early warning systems identify specific risk factors around natural resources, missions / organisations should prioritise training and capacity building on this topic. Project monitoring, reflection and mid-term, phased or milestone evaluations of ongoing programmes may also indicate the need to send staff to training. Moreover, practitioners who have a direct mandate / Terms of References relating to resource conflicts or conflict / violence prevention can benefit from taking part in such training.

Technical Background Knowledge on Natural Resources

Participants will learn about basic aspects of natural resources. The specific focus and detail depends on the participant’s background and tasks in the field as well as the specific needs and situation in the context or area of deployment related to natural resources (land, renewable, non-renewable) covering, for example:

  • Pollution, climate change and environmental exploitation and degradation due to human activity Knowledge of ecosystems and ecosystem services, such forest ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems and grassland ecosystems and how to sustainably use them (agri- and aquaculture)
  • Extractive industries, mineral exploitation and their impact (positive and negative) consequences for the environment and communities
  • Land, land tenure and housing, land and property rights
  • Technical mechanisms and approaches for the resolution and prevention of natural resource-based conflicts
  • Technical mechanisms and approaches for addressing natural resources and their role in fuelling/funding/contributing to the outbreak, continuation or renewal of violence

Understanding Natural Resource and Conflict Drivers / Peace Drivers

A crucial competency for personnel working on prevention of natural resources-based conflicts is to be able to analyse and understand the context of the conflict and natural resource with the relevant cultural, historic, political and economic aspects to it, and how these can be utilised/engaged with to support prevention and peace consolidation/strengthening. In this sub-curriculum participants learn to identify, map and understand the meaning and function for communities of the 3 types of natural resources (land, renewables and non-renewables) and their link to the onset, exacerbation or spread of conflict and violence and how they can be utilised or engaged with for prevention and peacebuilding. Participants learn how to use tools of peace and context analysis appropriate to natural resources and related conflict drivers, e.g. on mapping local stakeholders and analysing existing institutional capacities and stakeholder profiles. This may also include the facilitation, planning and implementation of multi-stakeholder and joint analysis and planning processes engaging with local community-stakeholders, local authorities and (where such exist) with local peacebuilding and prevention infrastructure and/or peace and development committees.

Community-based Prevention of Natural Resource-Based Conflicts and Armed Violence/Conflict Strategies, Approaches and Measures

A core competency developed through this sub-curriculum will be participants’ expertise, knowledge and understanding of tools, measures, strategies and approaches for community-based prevention of natural resource conflicts. This will include:

  • understanding and knowledge of approaches to community-based prevention
  • case studies, examples and lessons identified, including good and bad practices in community-based prevention
  • understanding how external interventions, missions and projects can positively or negatively impact upon local capacities and how to best address these
  • knowing how to develop context, cultural and community-specific programming to support and empower local community-based responses by state and non-state actors
  • applying local-first approaches to early warning systems and community-based prevention

Strengthening and Development of Community-Based Capacities for Prevention of Natural Resource-Based/Affected Conflicts

Another core competency, tied to that above, is how to empower and support local capacities and ownership of prevention. This will include: development of knowledge from relevant case studies of how communities have themselves prevented or engaged with natural resource-based conflicts and peacebuilding; overview of approaches and models to how international missions / international support can best assist/strengthen community-based peace consolidation and prevention; understanding of the positive and negative roles key actors can play including external agencies and missions; how to do institutional needs and capacity assessments with local institutions and community stakeholders; and models, approaches and good practices for capacity-building and institutional development and how to integrate these into mission, programme and project-planning and implementation. Concrete skills involve:

  • development and integration of planning and measures for prevention of community-based conflicts on/around natural resources into local government planning
  • budgeting, planning of local stakeholders and community-based NGOs
  • security forces planning, preparation and risk assessments, and existing early warning systems

Additional skills and knowledge competencies may be required on mediation; crisis de-escalation; nonviolent communication; community-based dialogue processes; healing and reconciliation mechanisms and approaches to address past disputes and possible violence related to natural resources.

Mission and Programme Operational and Strategic Planning for Community-Based Prevention of Resource-Based Conflicts

This sub-curriculum should also directly include how to develop appropriate policies and operational programming and interventions to support / strengthen community-based prevention or relevant mission staff and leadership should participate in Designing Interventions for Impact / Designing Peacebuilding Programming. For operational effectiveness trainees/deployees need to learn the practical skills and knowledge required to develop context and cultural-specific approaches and programming/missions.

Attitudes: Respect, Value and Sensitivity for the Environment and the Role of Natural Resources in Conflict

During the course the participants’ awareness about the role of natural resources in post- war / conflict settings should be raised and the following attitudes developed: Respect, Value and Sensitivity: Participants should develop sensitivity, building on respect for and value of natural resources and the environment in a given context. A sensitive approach includes considering, respecting and valuing cultural, economic, political, religious or spiritual usage and / or meaning attached to natural resources as well as awareness on pollution and destruction of the environment du to human activity (at individual, community / society and nation-state level). Furthermore, this includes respect towards traditional / indigenous means to manage natural resources.

Perception of “conflict resources” as “peace resources”: It is important that participants identify how natural resources, which may trigger, exacerbate or contribute to armed conflict, can be an entry point for prevention / peace initiatives or may be itself transformed into a “peace resource”.

Human Rights Perspective: Participants learn about a rights-based approach to the topic, for example that people have a human right to a clean environment as well as equality in access to resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from its utilization. Openness to Technologies: Practitioners should learn to stay open to technical solutions to the monitoring and management of natural resource and how these can be incorporated into prevention activities with the affected communities as well as how to engage with traditional and local-knowledge technologies which may be best suited for use in specific contexts.

Responsible Engagement with Culture, Gender and Intercultural Communication

When engaging in measures for natural resource-based conflict prevention at the community level, participants learn what do no harm and conflict sensitivity means in theory and how to practically implement it in their own work. Participants should reflect and determine their own and their deployment organisation’s role and tasks, including its possibilities and challenges (also with regard to the environment and natural resources), potential negative impact and necessary conditions for positive impact within the process. Furthermore, participants’ intercultural communication skills and learning how to address and involve local stakeholders are crucial. This includes i) becoming aware of (possible) local language and concepts to describe (for example) conflict, peacebuilding, prevention and natural resources and their meaning ii) adopting to cultural and language specificities and iii) avoiding technical jargon around natural resources and prevention. Additionally, it includes ensuring mission- and project -specific needs and situation assessments, strategic and programme level-planning as well as monitoring and evaluation are implemented with authentic participatory engagement and appropriate ownership by local stakeholders. Moreover, participant’s learn what gender sensitivity means and how to be gender sensitive in their own work, for example by promoting women’s participation and empowerment, challenging gender-based violence and ensuring a gender lens in all work activities. Participants should be trained in specific methodologies and approaches on how to ensure strong gender-parity and women’s participation in programming, planning, evaluation and learning, as wellas as means to support and strengthen women’s participation, leadership and capacity for prevention of natural resource-based conflicts.

Cooperation

Participants’ awareness and skills on identifying, engaging and cooperating with other, relevant actors in the field, such as local and international NGOs working on peacebuilding, natural resource preservation and environmental protection, international organisations and related programmes, private sector (e.g. extractive industries) or governmental agencies should be addressed. This is important, as conflict / violence has never just one cause (e.g. natural resource), but multiple causes as well as contributing factors. Organisations working on empowering women or violence prevention amongst local youth are not directly related to natural resources yet local women and youth may play a major role in escalation or relapse of conflict over natural resources and its prevention. Participants should learn how to engage with organisations for integrating prevention activities along other sectors and target groups.

The following sub-curricula may be directly linked to the Preventing Natural Resource-Based Conflict at the Community Level sub-curricula when developing more comprehensive training programmes or seeking to integrate in development of core competencies and operational capabilities in this field:

  • Violence Prevention / Prevention of Armed Conflicts/Armed Violence
  • Designing Interventions for Impact / Designing CPPB Programming
  • Mediation, Dialogue and Negotiation
  • Early Warning Systems & Prevention
  • Resilience and Disaster Preparedness
  • Diplomacy / Preventive Diplomacy
  • Strategic Planning for Prevention / Peace Consolidation
  • Community-based peacebuilding
  • Conflict sensitive / participatory / inclusive natural resource management / governance
  • Sustainable Development

The following modules & content provide a ‘model’ of core modules, which are recommended to be included when developing Preventing Natural Resource-Based Conflict at the Community Level training. Trainers / missions may wish to adapt, develop or customise this content to meet the specific needs of missions or specific trainings. These modules may be delivered either in one training or through several training designed to develop overall mission competency in this field. Some modules may also be developed and delivered through online training. The sub-curriculum example here is designed for a model course of 7 days.

Introduction: Natural Resources and Armed Conflict
  • Group Introduction & Breaking the Ice
  • Natural Resources
  • Natural Resources and links to Armed Conflict, Prevention & Peacebuilding
  • Conflict Drivers for different natural resource types
  • Case Studies
Prevention – What does it involve and who does it?
  • Concepts of Prevention, Prevention Work with Local Communities & Local First Approaches
  • Actors, Local Stakeholders and third Parties Principles: Conflict and cultural sensitivity, do no harm and local ownership
  • Gender Matters
Context Analysis
  • Practicing Context Analysis Tools to Assess Natural Resources in Local Contexts
  • Conflict Drivers and Peace Drivers (Enablers)
  • Involved outside and inside / 3rd Party Actors
Strategies for Structural Prevention at the Community Level
  • Local Policy Framework
  • Awareness Raising and Advocacy / Campaigning
  • Other, Targeted Programmes
  • Conflict-sensitive, Local Natural Resource Management Systems
  • Capacity Development, Training and Education
  • Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue and Relationship Transformation
How to Overcome Challenges
  • Identification of challenges and mitigation / coping strategies
Strategies for Operational Prevention at the Community Level
  • Grass Root Early Warning and Early Action Innovation and technologies for Early Warning at the Community-level
  • Track 2 & 3 Mediation and Negotiation
Improving / Designing Strategy & Programming
  • Design / improve strategy/ programme of personal project or organisation

Table: Overview of Modules

Introduction: Natural Resources and Armed Conflict

Group Introduction & Breaking the Ice

To begin the programme about 2 hours (depending on the group size) should be dedicated to course and group introduction via interaction methods for getting-to know each other and ‘breaking the ice’. This is important for creating positive group dynamics, which can facilitate effective learning and skills development. This should include reflection and identification by participants and trainers on the expectations for the training and participants’ desired learning outcomes.

Natural Resources

The trainer/training team should draw on the experience and knowledge in the room /agencies present, discussing experiences regarding natural resources and their management in the political, historical, cultural and economic context(s) in which participants have worked and / or lived. Content includes, defining key terms and concepts around natural resources and their significance in people’s lives, different functions and meaning in different contexts / societies / cultures / communities (land, renewable and non-renewable, conflict resources, and resource curse) (in small groups).Discussing human rights perspectives and approaches, for example that people have a human right to a clean environment as well as equal access to resources and the fair sharing of benefits from its utilization. For details, see the UNEP factsheet 2015 on Human Rights and the Environment. Furthermore, theories on resources and ecosystems like the tragedy of the commons (Hardin, 1968) can be discussed.

Natural Resources and Links to (Armed) Conflict, Prevention & Peacebuilding

Different types of natural resources and their link to armed conflict are explored. The particularities of land as well as renewable and non-renewable natural resources about the onset and exacerbation is explained. Participants should receive infographics overviewing the various ways in which natural resources are linked to armed conflicts either as drivers/causes and/or enablers. Participants should be asked to provide examples of how natural resources relate to conflict in their work or living contexts. For an overview see UNEP (2009). From conflict to peacebuilding - The role of natural resources and the environment. Theories on the link between natural resources and conflict are presented and discussed, such as the resource curse of resource-rich countries (Dutch disease). Case studies (additional to those of the participants) are provided in the Annex. Moreover, this module should specify the conflict drivers with a particular focus on the respective type of natural resource.

Understanding and Analysing Conflict Drivers
1. Increasing scarcity of (renewable / non-renewable) natural resource and / or land, causing, exacerbating competition between users, Demand-induced scarcity, Supply-induced scarcity, Structural scarcity
2. Poor natural resources management: Overlapping rights and laws, Discriminatory policies, Unequal burdens and benefits,Lack of public participation
3. (Transboundary) Dynamics and pressures: Unequal, inflexible, unsustainable use, Environmental degradation, Pollution, Migration of people/wildlife, Illegal exploitation of resources, Population growth & overstretching /using NR

Table: Analytical Framework for context mapping (inspired by UN’s toolkit on Renewable Resources and Conflict (UNEP 2012, p. 44)

Finally, the connection between natural resources and peacebuilding, and how natural resources can also be assets/enablers of prevention and peace, should be introduced.

Prevention – What does it involve and who does it?

This module introduces the concept of conflict/ violence prevention at the community level and deals with identifying involved actors and their roles, responsibilities, challenges and opportunities regarding prevention of natural resource-based conflicts. Inside actors and especially the role of third parties, outside actors as well as principles of do no harm, local ownership and conflict sensitivity are discussed. Lastly, the importance of gender and gender mainstreaming is addressed. Participant’s awareness about the topic is raised and they are introduced with the basics on gender awareness and mainstreaming, which should then guide the upcoming activities and topics throughout the training.

Examples of actors and roles in conflict prevention around non-renewable natural resources should be explored and reviewed, as in the following table:

Table: Actors and their function (United Nations Interagency Framework Team for Preventive Action, 2012a, p. 23)

Context Analysis – Understanding Contexts

For a more detailed context analysis, participants train to use a comprehensive context analysis framework on natural resources and/in conflict using for example the framework suggested in the UN’s toolkit on Renewable Resources and Conflict (UNEP 2012, p. 44) (for adapted version see table below). In small groups, participants conduct an analysis of a case example from their own past, present or future working / living context to test and practice their analytical skills. Particular focus lies on the community aspects in the context.

Parameter Selected Case
Contested Resource(e.g. farmland, rivers fishery, forest)
Current and Future Conflict Drivers (e.g. increasing scarcity, pollution, poor management or transboundary dynamics)
Other Conflict Sources (Political, social, and economic inequalities, poor governance, human rights abuses)
Key Actors, Interest, Needs and Capacities (Communities, authorities, companies, NGOs, CSOs, armed, criminal groups)
International Actors / Projects related to natural resources / community development / conflict and violence prevention
Drivers for Peace / Potential Enablers (existing positive, effective aspects of NR management, actor’s practices and capacities that contribute to peace)

Table: Analytical Framework for context mapping (inspired by UN toolkit Renewable Resources and Conflict (UNEP 2012, p. 44)

Development Strategies for Structural Prevention at the Community Level

Linking in with the previous module of context analysis, this module is about learning about and practicing strategy development for structural prevention at the community level. Building upon the context analysis, actor mapping and the identification of peace and conflict drivers, participants should be able to conduct a needs assessment as prerequisite of strategy development. One aspect of it is the reflection of the participants own and organisations competence and the identification of their mandate, expertise as well as entry point for prevention activities. Having pinpointed these, the participants can proceed in elaborating, selecting and choosing strategies, which may be most relevant and appropriate in a given context. The strategies may be differentiated regarding the type of natural resource. Based on case studies lessons identified and best and “bad” practices are discussed. The table presents a selection of possible strategies and activities for community-based prevention of natural resource conflicts.

Strategy Land Renewable Natural Resources Renewable Natural Resources
Local Policy Framework Supporting, establishing structure for participation on land reforms at central government level Establishing a political framework for community natural resource management e.g. formalized agreements on protection, distribution, usage Establishing a political framework for community natural resource management e.g. formalized agreements on protection and distribution
Awareness Raising and Advocacy / campaigns E.g. public awareness about individual and community rights on land titles Community activities on sustainable and conflict sensitive use e.g. at schools, youth centres to fight pollution and promote sustainable practice E.g. public awareness about environmental concerns and solutions for conflict sensitive and sustainable resource extraction, community and labour rights
Other, targeted Programmes Supporting sustainable Livelihoods and reduce vulnerability to resource scarcity
Conflict-sensitive, local Management Systems
Local Councils or Working Groups with representatives of marginalized groups, affected families, interest groups, scientists, government e.g. mayors and involved private sector actors, incl. labour unions as well as leaders of armed groups
Capacity Development, Training & Education
For local leaders and representatives of livelihood and / or marginalized groups as well as government officials e.g. from relevant ministries. Possible topics: ecosystem services and environmental protection, waste / water management, laws and regulations, land titles and ownership and dialogue and mediation
Capacity Development, Training & Education
For local leaders and representatives of livelihood and / or marginalized groups as well as government officials e.g. from relevant ministries. Possible topics: ecosystem services and environmental protection, waste / water management, laws and regulations, land titles and ownership and dialogue and mediation
(Multi-stakeholder) Dialogue to improving / transforming Relationships
Spaces / infrastructures for communication, collaboration and trust-building for conflict transformation / nonviolent dispute resolution (bonding and bridging) between government, private sector and local communities, leaders, as well as between and within communities
GRAPHIC based on: wedocs.unep.org

How to overcome Challenges

This module is dedicated to the topic of challenges in prevention work and how to overcome them. The participants are asked to share their own experiences and challenges they face and their coping mechanisms. Together with the facilitator, the group elaborates on these coping / mitigating mechanisms, learning from other cases, best practice and lessons learned. Besides discussing challenges to prevention processes, this module is all about providing an open space to the participants and find solutions to challenges to their personal work and life in natural resource-based conflict prevention.

Examples of Potential Challenges Coping / Mitigating Mechanisms and Strategies
Citizen security, e.g. of leaders or activist who take unpopular decisions or who represent marginalized groups Illegal, transnational groups, whose integration in prevention activities is difficult
Lack of legitimacy, accountability and transparency of existing and new NR governance systems corruption
Small Arms & light weapons
Personal safety and security
Lack of legitimacy and accountability of programme achieving local author- and ownership

Table: Challenges and Mitigation Strategies

Operational Prevention Strategies

This module is about learning and practicing responses to evolving crises around natural resource-based conflicts. Participants will learn about two mechanisms for operational prevention and how to use them in particular contexts, i) local early warning systems and early action and ii) mediation and negotiation. Additionally, technologies and innovative approaches for the facilitation of prevention are presented and discussed. Particular emphasis will be placed on local-first approaches.

Grass Root Early Warning and Early Action

This part is about local or grass root early warning and early action and focuses on risk assessment and scenario analysis to identify hot spots and finding an appropriate response. Case studies of existing local first strategies, lessons identified as well as good and “bad” practice will be used. On a basis of a case study the participants should then practice to use tools of early warning and early response. Information on specific cases is found in the Annex. Furthermore, the opportunities and challenges of technologies and innovative approaches to early warning are explored. Before presenting existing best practice on innovative approaches and technologies, participants should be asked to share their experiences in this area. Experiences with ICT (information and communication technology) in early warning systems should be reviewed together with relative strengths, weakness, opportunities and challenges, including lessons learned from experiences such as the Kenyan 2013 elections. Utilisation of traditional systems and indigenous technologies and how these can strengthen community-based prevention should also be explored. Materials with examples are provided in the Annex.

Track 2 & 3 Mediation and Negotiation

This session delves into the background knowledge and skill development of mediation and negotiation at track 2 and 3. After an input on the theory of mediation and negotiation, participants will practice and test their practical skills in mediation / negotiation in simulation activities or role plays. This should include Pre-negotiation / mediation preparedness: Logistics, selection of actors, strategy etc. Negotiation / mediation phase: strategies, behaviour, skills, logistics (e.g. working with an interpreter), risks and test cases Implementation phase of agreement: monitoring and potential challenges

Improving / Designing Strategy & Programming

This module, which may take place over several sessions, comprises a practical exercise for participants to review and improve or develop a new strategy for natural resource-based conflict prevention measures and activities of their own or organisation’s work in the field. This module is about testing newly acquired skills and knowledge and creating a tangible output from the training, which the participants can take back with them and directly apply to their work. The facilitator should support the individual learning and development process, providing guidelines, tips and consult whenever asked to. Materials may be drawn from the Designing Interventions for Impact / Designing CPPB Programming sub-curriculum.

Beginner / Entry

Basic knowledge and awareness on the issue conflict prevention at the community level, exposure to available resource materials, understanding of core terms and definitions, overview of appropriate strategies and approaches and how to integrate these into practice, and exposure to select case studies.

Intermediate / Advanced

Intermediate / advanced courses should engage more in-depth on learning of practical measures, tools, policies and strategies for how to best empower and support community-based prevention; more in-depth review and learning from case studies and ‘good’ and ‘bad’ practices; development of participants own programming planning and approaches to supporting community-based prevention and applied skills training and simulations addressing both structural and operational prevention.

Expert / Specialisation

Specialized training could focus on:

  1. competence development regarding a particular type of natural resources, prevention of conflict about land, prevention of conflict about renewable natural resources (e.g. forests, fishery, agriculture, illicit drug cultivation), prevention of conflict about non-renewable natural resources (extractive industries)
  2. a particular region / country e.g. West, East or sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, The Caribbean. Examples include the CI Workshop in the Philippines, which linked taught skills with cultural and geographical issues specific to CI Philippines projects, and Conflict Sensitive Conservation Training of CI in Colombia (only in Spanish)
  3. a particular stakeholder, e.g. the private sector
  4. in-depth development of context-specific programming and approaches for strengthening local / national capacities for community-based prevention

Sensitivity to Participants’ Backgrounds: For this SC, the trainer has to make sure to be responsive to the different background of participants and experiences with community-based prevention, natural resources and peacebuilding. Depending on the group, they might be experts on prevention and early warning systems with little experiences working in natural resources and community-based programmes or vice versa practitioners with limited knowledge about prevention yet experiences in natural resource management.

Conflict and Cultural Sensitivity: The trainer requires to have an in-depth understanding of the cultural aspects around natural resources, the meaning, values and perceptions for the community and other actors. Particular sites, like forests for example, may have a spiritual or historical meaning for a community, whereas the private sector, government or donor organisations primarily see the (potential) financial profit that can be made with timber or jobs created. With the selection and guided discussion of case studies the trainer can raise awareness about these cultural aspect as well as make sure participants use a culture and conflict sensitive lens in their analysis as well as mainstream it through their strategy development. It includes ensuring mission- and project -specific needs and situation assessments, strategic and programme level-planning as well as monitoring and evaluation are implemented with authentic participatory engagement and appropriate ownership by local stakeholders.

Gender: Gender should be mainstreamed throughout the modules. That means for example discussing how natural resources and conflict around them influence men, women, boys and girls well as how these groups can be involved strategy development and programming of community-based prevention programmes. Case studies are found in the annex.

Title Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
Checklist for integration gender into conservation programming Conservation International 2016 docs.google.com
Coordinating land and water governance for food security and gender equality Madiodio Niasse, Global Water Partnership 2017 www.gwp.org
Gender-based violence: recognizing and responding to gender-based violence (GBV) in community conservation Conservation International drive.google.com
Getting to equal participation: tips for supporting women’s engagement in conservation Conservation International drive.google.com
Women and Natural Resources. Unlocking the Peacebuilding Potential UNEP, UN Women, PBSO and UNDP 2013 www.unwomen.org
Women as agents of peace in natural resource conflict in Sudan UN Environment 2017 www.unenvironment.org
Title Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
Conflict-Sensitive Conservation: Practitioners' Manual *Note available in Eng, Esp & French International Institute for Sustainable Development 2009 www.iisd.org
Conflict-Sensitive Program Management CSPM, Integrating Conflict Sensitivity and Prevention of Violence into SDC Programs – A Handbook for Practitioners. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, SDC 2006 www.eda.admin.ch
Fact Sheet Conflict Sensitivity Center for Peacebuilding KOFF 2012 koff.swisspeace.ch
How to guide to conflict sensitivity Conflict Sensitivity Consortium 2012 local.conflictsensitivity.org
Selection of case studies on Conflict-Sensitive Conservation International Institute for Sustainable Development, IIDS 2002 www.iisd.org
Do no harm in land tenure and property rights: Designing and implementing conflict sensitive land programs. Goddard, N.& Lempke, M., CDA 2013 cdacollaborative.org
Strengthening capacity for conflict-sensitive natural resource management. Toolkit and guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. UN Interagency Framework Team for Preventive Action 2012 www.un.org

This SC puts practical skills, development of the right ‘attitudes’ for effective community-based prevention of natural resource conflicts, and previous experience of participants at the centre of the learning experience. Trainers should ensure methodologies and materials are highly practical and are able to develop not only participants’ knowledge and understanding but also their actual capabilities and the necessary skills and supporting attitudes which can enable effective implementation in the field. Particularly, the last module (Improving / Designing Strategy & Programming) gives participants the opportunity to reflect upon their own work, roles, mandates, opportunities and challenges, with the goal to create / improve their capacities and strategies. They will put to practice what they have learned throughout the course and will take something “tangible” back and apply and test it in practice. Additionally, in order to ensure the SC develops participants operational and performance capacities effectively, courses should include:

Content Briefings which can be developed ‘lecture’ / presentation style or through participants engaging to develop briefings on core topics; Case Studies from missions or specific community-based prevention activities and incidents in which natural resource triggered, exacerbated or further spread conflict and violence. This helps to contextualise prevention activities and make it more ‘real’ for participants; Review of lessons learned and actual experiences from missions and ‘on the ground’ / in the field contexts - which can be provided through expert speakers, case studies, videos and film documentaries; Exercises to apply peace and context analysis, needs analysis, and planning for community-based prevention programmes, relevant to participants actual mission and contexts; Simulations and Role plays on for example dialogue, mediation and negotiation with / between communities and conflict parties on drivers for natural resource conflicts.

This SC represents an innovative curriculum, as it is one of the first of its kind in the field, addressing prevention and natural resource-based conflicts. Currently, there is a lack of training programmes in Europe on prevention and environmental peacebuilding, natural resources and conflict. The focus on community-based prevention is an additional innovation/ frontier as prevention activities often focus on governmental structures and practices with little consideration for local participation and ownership by the affected community. Strategies thereby frequently lack legitimacy and effectiveness. Furthermore, this SC specifies relevant attitudes, knowledge and skills, which practitioners need to work in this area. The sub-curriculum offers a variety of case studies from different countries, regions and types of natural resources; hence, it can be easily tailored for a training on a specific region, target group or natural resource. Critical, but often side-lined issues around conflict and cultural sensitivity, gender mainstreaming and elicitive learning are considered throughout the sub-curriculum. The inclusion of development and design of the participants own programming, missions and interventions is also an important frontier in training methodologies and practice to enhance the applicability and utilisation of learning by participants as well as a customisation of tools, strategies and approaches to their institutional and operational need and context.

The following approaches which can be integrated into trainings or complementary to trainings can assist development or improvement of capacity for community-based prevention of natural resource conflicts:

Learning Documentaries (Film) and Publications: Creation / Usage of documentaries and case study films and publications can assist for improvement of competency and understanding on prevention, community-based CPPB and natural resources and may be used in trainings, in training preparation, and post-training materials or independently; Case Learning / Situation Review: In mission capacity can be enhanced by appropriate case learning and situation reviews implemented in response to specific resource-based conflict situations both as they are existing/developing and after having implemented community-based prevention programmes to improve in-mission learning, evaluation and recording of lessons, and improved proactive future policies and practice; Scenario Development: In contexts where conflict dynamics may be worsening / escalating due to natural resources (its exploitation, uneven distribution, pollution and degradation) international and national actors should engage in scenario development and futures forecasting to identify hot spots and areas / situations of high risk of natural resource-related armed conflict and violence; Joint Evaluations / Multi-Mission/Country Evaluations: A critical approach to capacity development includes joint evaluation of what has been done / experienced so far in that mission/context. Even better can be ‘multi-mission’ evaluations to gather a broader scope and depth of experience and learnings across contexts. If this can be implemented as multi-sector, multi-stakeholder approaches together with local communities and national institutions / stakeholders, they can also help to improve national capabilities of prevention; Online / ICT-based real situation simulations: Missions and organisations in the field may also wish to consider development of online or ICT-based simulations and exercises, integrating for example video tutorials and testimonials, lessons learned. These can be used for training / developing participants response to different situations and improving attitudes, skills and knowledge of early warning and early response to natural resource-based conflicts. This can be either complementary to or independent of training programmes.

Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Course Title Link to Course Outline (if available) Link to Relevant Publications / Resources / Handbooks / Toolkits used in the course (if available)
Folke Bernadotte Academy Facilitation of Dialogue Processes and Mediation Efforts fba.se -
Folke Bernadotte Academy Helsinki Espana Tailor-Made Courses on Conflict Prevention REACT fba.se -
Peace Action Training Institute Romania Making Prevention, Early Warning and Peacebuilding Effective: Lessons Learned, What Works in the Field and Core Skills patrir.ro -
SDG Academy Environmental Security and Sustaining Peace (first delivery in March 2018) 8-week massive open online course (MOOC) courses.sdgacademy.org -
SwissPeace Preventing Violent Conflict www.swisspeace.ch -
Title Organisation / Institution Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
Conflict Prevention & Peacebuilding in the Maiko-Tayna-Kahuzi-Biega Landscape in the Democratic Republic of Congo Conservation International www.conservation.org
Conflict Prevention in Resource-Rich Economies. The Role of Economic Policy. Self-Study Learning Module UNEP-EU www.un.org
Extractive Industries and Conflict. Toolkit and Guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. UN-EU 2012 postconflict.unep.ch
Land and Conflict. Toolkit and Guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. UN-EU Guidance note 2012 postconflict.unep.ch
Natural Resources and Conflict: A Guide for Mediation Practitioners UNEP & UN DPA 2015 wedocs.unep.org
Preventing Conflict in Resource-Rich Countries: The Extractive Industries Value Chain as a Framework for Conflict Prevention EU-UN & World Bank 2015 postconflict.unep.ch
Relationships and resources environmental governance for peacebuilding and resilient livelihoods in Sudan UNEP & UKAID 2014 wedocs.unep.org
Renewable Resources and Conflict. Toolkit and Guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. UN-EU 2012 postconflict.unep.ch
The Role of The Exploitation o Natural Resources in Fuelling And Prolonging Crises in the Eastern DRC Toolkit and Guidance for Preventing and Managing Land and Natural Resources Conflict (2012): Land and Conflict, Renewable Resources and Conflict and Extractive Industries and Conflict International Alert 2010 www.international-alert.org
Name, Surname Organisation / Institution URL (if available)
Alexander CARIUS Adelphi founder and Managing Director, consultant on environmental and development policy www.adelphi.de
Carl BRUCH Director, International Programs, Environmental Law Institute www.eli.org
Daniel Orellana AGUIRRE Independent Psychologist and Psychotherapist, experienced in training staff in international cooperation
David JENSEN Head, Environmental Cooperation for Peacebuilding Program, United Nations Environment Program UNEP (DJ), Training Support www.unenvironment.org
Erika WEINTHAL Lee Hill Snowdon Professor of Environmental Policy, Associate Dean for International Programs; Duke University nicholas.duke.edu
Experts-Database Swiss Agency for development and cooperation www.eda.admin.ch
Franziska SIGRIST Training Coordinator, KOFF Center for Peacebuilding, SwissPeace www.swisspeace.ch
Günter SCHOENEGG Peace Resources Group www.peaceresources.net
Harald LOSSACK GIZ Expert on Managing Natural Resource & Climate www.giz.de
Helmut ALBERT GIZ Expert on agricultural policy and rural areas www.giz.de
Janet EDMOND Conversation International Senior Director of Peace and Development Partnerships Program sites.google.com
Jessica HARTOG International Alert Head of Natural Resource Management and Climate Change www.international-alert.org
Jörg LINKE GIZ Expert climate www.giz.de
Kame WESTERMAN Gender and Conservation Advisor, Conservation International www.conservation.org
Ken CONCA Professor of International Affairs, American University focus i.e. on environmental peacebuilding, environmental politics and policy in the United Nations system and water governance www.american.edu
Lukas RÜTTINGER Adelphi Senior Project Manager leading the area of peace and security, and resources www.adelphi.de
Marc LEVY Deputy Director, Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University beta.global.columbia.edu
Michael ROSENAUER GIZExpert on Water www.giz.de
Nicolás CISNEROS Project Advisor, Environmental Cooperation for Peacebuilding Program, United Nations Environment Program UNEP web.unep.org
Oli BROWN Consultant, United Nations Environment Program UNEP / Chatham House (OB) www.unenvironment.org
Richard MATTHEW Director, Blum Center for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development, University of California Irvine faculty.sites.uci.edu
Silja HALLE Coordinator of Women, Natural Resources and Peace, UN Environment www.unenvironment.org
Stefan KRALL GIZ Expert in Sustainable Natural Resource Management www.giz.de
Reference List
Conversation International (CI) (2017). Conservation and Peace. www.conservation.org
DPCR - Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University (2017). Understanding Environmental Peacebuilding. www.pcr.uu.se
Environmental Peacebuilding (2017a). Library. environmentalpeacebuilding.org
Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, Vol. 162, Issue 3859, pp. 1243-1248. science.sciencemag.org
Mkutu, K. (2001). Pastoralism and conflict in the Horn of Africa. Africa Peace Forum / Saferworld / University of Bradford. www.saferworld.org.uk
UN Interagency Framework Team for Preventive Action (2012a). Strengthening capacity for conflict-sensitive natural resource management. Toolkit and guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. Extractive Industries and Conflict. postconflict.unep.ch
UN Interagency Framework Team for Preventive Action (2012b). Strengthening capacity for conflict-sensitive natural resource management. Toolkit and guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. Strengthening Capacity for Conflict-Sensitive Natural Resource. Management. www.un.org
UNEP (2012). Toolkit and guidance for preventing and managing land and natural resources conflict. Renewable Resources and Conflict. www.un.org
UNEP (2015). Factsheet on Human Rights and the Environment. wedocs.unep.org
UNEP (2015). Natural Resources and Conflict A Guide for Mediation Practitioners. wedocs.unep.org
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2009). From conflict to peacebuilding: The role of natural resources and the environment. postconflict.unep.ch
Case study materials for module 1
Environment, Conflict and Cooperation Factbook. 2017. Adelphi.
Horn of Africa: Resources, Peace and Conflict in the Horn of Africa. 2014 by Dahre, U.J. (ed.). A Report on the 12th Horn of Africa Conference, Lund, Sweden.
Colombia: Fuelling Conflict in Colombia: The Impact of Gold Mining in Chocó. 2016 by ABColombia, Catholic Agency For Overseas Development, Christian Aid, Oxfam GB, Scottish Catholic International Aid Fund, and Trócaire
Iraq, Nigeria, Syria: Oil-Fuelled Insurgencies: Loot able Wealth and Political Order in Syria, Iraq, and Nigeria. 2017 by Feryaz Ocakli and Matthew Scotch Journal of Global Security Studies.
DR Congo: 'It's not all about the land': Land Disputes and Conflict in the Eastern Congo .2016 Gillian Mathys and Koen Vlassenroot.
Urban Land Conflict in the Global South: Towards an Analytical Framework. 2016. Lombard, M. & Rakodi, C. Sudan: Power, Contested Institutions and Land: Depoliticising Analysis of Natural Resources and Conflict in Darfur. 2017 by Bromwich, B. Journal of East African Studies.
If needed the facilitator can also work with case studies and other materials such as: Identifying Conflict Potential in a Coastal and Marine Environment Using Participatory Mapping. 2016 by Moore, S., A., Brown, G., Kobryn, H. and Strickland-Munro, J. Journal of Environmental Management.
Case study materials for module 4
On renewables Forest Management Units in Indonesia , which became pivotal structural elements for managing all state forests at the local level (Larry A. Fisher, Yeon-Su Kim, Sitti Latifah, and Madani Makarom, 2017.
Co-management model of natural resources in the Nino Konis Santana National Park conflict-affected communities in Timor-Leste (Conservation International).
Conservation Agreement model implemented in Liberia’s East Nimba Nature Reserve (Conservation International).
DR Congo the dialogue process and agreement on sustainable resource use, involving NGOs, women and indigenous peoples’ representatives, local and traditional leaders, hunters, miners, religious leaders, international conservation and officials from i.e. the Ministry of Environment, Education, Security, Interior and Defense in the Maiko-Tayna-Kahuzi-Biega landscape in DR Congo (Conservation International).
Strengthening Aquatic Resource Governance (STARGO) project: Facilitating multi-stakeholder dialogue to manage natural resource competition – A synthesis of lessons from Uganda, Zambia, and Cambodia and Dialogue to address the roots of resource competition: Lessons for policy and practice
For examples on prevention strategies for specific renewables see page 71-82 postconflict.unep.ch
  • Water Conflicts
  • Rangeland Conflicts
  • Forest Conflicts
  • Fisheries Conflicts
  • On Land
Land Management in Afghanistan: Community documentation of land tenure and its contribution to state building in Afghanistan. Stanfield et al. 2013
On non-renewables in Preventing Conflict in Research Rich Economies. The extractive industries value chain as a framework for conflict prevention 2015 World Bank.
  • Chile
  • Peru
  • Zambia Preference for Peace
  • DRC

Case study materials for module 4

On Early Warning Elections in Kenya 2013 : A Local First Approach to Early Warning Response Peace Direct, www.insightonconflict.org

Liberia: Early Warning and Early Response Working Group Source: Peace Direct’s Liberia: early warning and early response collaboration. On natural resources and mediation. Guidance for specific NR in Natural Resources and Conflict A Guide for Mediation Practitioners (UNEP 2015, p. 28-40 Extractive / non-renewable NR, Land, Water

Natural Resources and Conflict A Guide for Mediation Practitioners (UNEP 2015, p.58-83) Aceh, Indonesia: Oil and natural gas, Bougainville, Papua New Guinea: The Panguna copper mine, Alberta, Canada: Gas flaring framework, British Columbia, Canada: The Great Bear Rainforest, Ecuador and Peru: The transboundary Condor conservation corridor, India and Pakistan: The Indus Waters Treaty, Iran and Afghanistan: The Sistan basin, Sudan: Oil as a peace incentive during the Sudanese peace process

On technologies and innovate approaches, Una Hakika – Kenya SMS for early warning, Information at thesentinelproject.org and irevolutions.org Video: Ecuador Protection / monitoring of forest from illegal lumbering with technology of old cell phones

Case study materials on Gender / Women and Natural Resources

Women and Natural Resources. Unlocking the Peacebuilding Potential (UNEP, UN Women, PBSO and UNDP 2013, p.17-43), Legality versus reality: Implementing women’s land rights in Uganda, Safeguarding gender equality gains for ex-combatants in post-conflict Nepal, Women in agriculture in post-conflict Aceh, Indonesia, Gender dynamics in water management in the West Bank, Women’s roles in the peace process in Bougainville, Papua New Guinea, Women’s participation in the artisanal mining sector in post-conflict Sierra Leone, Women’s participation in decision-making on forest management in Liberia, Supporting sustainable livelihoods for women through natural resource management in Burundi, Engaging women in natural resource management and conflict resolution processes in South Kordofan, Sudan Protecting women from exposure to sexual violence while gathering natural resources in Darfur, The perils of the charcoal trade in North Kivu, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, Improving women’s health and reducing deforestation in Afghanistan, Land reparations for rural and indigenous women in Colombia, Investing in women to support food security in Côte d’Ivoire

Introduction

Over the past two decades peacebuilding and prevention work has grown considerably both in terms of volume of work and in terms of complexity of this work. Professionals may routinely witness violence and work with individuals who have experienced grave atrocities. They may endure the stress of the responsibility of how to intervene to help others and come to terms with negative outcomes. The intra- and inter-personal effects of working in and with conflict have been acknowledged theoretically for quite some time. Experts in trauma recognise that professionals may experience PTSD from witnessing atrocities and secondary trauma from working with individuals who experienced atrocities. Even when workers do are not traumatised, they may feel exhaustion, helplessness and sometimes depression. Unfortunately, the approach to dealing with these phenomena has been largely reactive. Generally, psychological counselling services are offered to parties who display difficulty coping during or after peace missions. Such an approach risks marginalising those offered interventions as weaker, more sensitive or not up for the work, thus placing responsibility for the problem on the person rather than the circumstances.

A more systematic and proactive approach can equip professionals with skills of self-care, self-awareness, and resilience-building. In addition, it can educate professionals, and promote avenues for professionals to support each other. Most importantly, it reduces shame and stigma around these issue through recognising they are potential hazards of this work. Until recently very few institutions and organisations were taking this into account and providing training, counselling and recovery services as part of the typical mission capacity building programme. Organisations should be more sensitive to the potential hazards of this work and the way they can impact the health of workers, interpersonal relations of the team, and professional performance. They should recognise their responsibility in promoting health and well-being among staff and make this a priority. To this end, we recommend the inclusion of training modules on self-care before, during and after deployment. We have seen several agencies begin to prioritise and develop such models, and see room for these to be further developed and implemented systematically.

Upon completion of the courses included in this curricula the CPPB mission staff will:

  • KNOWLEDGE:
  • Define, describe and demonstrate a complex understanding of the concepts of self-care, well-being, mindfulness, secondary traumatic stress, resilience, professional quality of life, compassion fatigue, burnout etc.
  • Know the range of psychosocial risks associated with working in conflict settings and the type of indicators that signal those risks
  • Know a range of different strategies to increase resilience to field-related stress and trauma
  • Understand the range of ethical issues associated with the non-recognition of the manifestations and effects of stress and burnout in the CPPB missions
  • Know basic organisational management / human resource strategies/practices and policies that enable the early identification, prevention and healing of stress and trauma for CPPB staff
  • ATTITUDES:
  • Develop an appreciation for a proactive attitude in the identification and addressing of issues related to self-care and self-awareness in the field
  • Demonstrate a deeper and more empathic understanding for colleagues dealing with high levels of burnout, stress and trauma upon working in conflict settings
  • Reduce shame and stigma around seeking help and support
  • SKILLS:
  • Be able to employ (self)assessment instruments that indicate the type and level of stress, trauma, resilience and coping mechanism appropriateness that the CPPB practitioner might appeal to
  • Be able to draft a strategy and plan that addresses the core gaps/problems related to stress, trauma and burnout in one’s mission/ work assignment
  • Effectively identify and communicate symptoms of burnout or emotional distress
  • Be able to argue and argument the need for self-care and self-awareness capacity building in the pre-deployment, deployment and post-deployment phases of a CPPB mission as well for the inclusion of self-care and self-awareness policies at institutional levels
  • Develop skills for self-care and for appropriately intervening to assist colleagues and at times face and tackle stigma and stress

Prevention and peacebuilding personnel works generally in complex and highly stressful contexts where they deal with witnessing violence, having to take vital decisions under stress, mistrust, uncertainty and lack of safety. This affects all level of wellbeing, namely physical, social, emotional, spiritual and psychological with manifestations including: reduced productivity, fragmented relationships, sickness, depression, substance abuse, sleep deprivation and violent reactions and manifestations within own families and communities. Globally organisations working in conflict zones (especially UN bodies who in the past 5 years have conducted several studies reflecting the incidence of stress and trauma on their personnel ) have reported and recognized these effects faced by their staff in the field.

BOX: The Global Development Professional Network (GDPN) survey on mental health and wellbeing reported that 79% of 754 respondents had experienced mental health issues, with 93% stating that these were related to their work in the aid industry. (Source: reliefweb.int)

As noted in the ZIF Study (Source: www.zif-berlin.org)“ while the UN has a complex staff care system in place and staff counsellors in many missions, the EU has a Critical Incident Response Mechanism and limited staff counselling capacity implemented. It is currently establishing a peer support system. The OSCE response to critical incidents is not yet standardized and there are no other stress management systems in place.”

The training is designed to be delivered in different modules accompanying the deployed personnel in different moments of the mission. This training is designed to be delivered in three stages:

The first stage is pre-deployment. Here personnel will learn why self-care is so important. They will be made aware of the potential hazards they may encounter - the types of atrocities they may witness, difficult decisions they may need to make etc. They will learn about the possible negative physical and mental health symptoms that may occur. They will learn how to identify these symptoms in self and others, and determine what to do should they become concerned about a member of their team. In addition, they will troubleshoot strategies they can implement in the field to promote self-care and well-being. The second stage is during deployment. During deployment, they can have a training that centres around the types of issues they are encountering in the field and how they are feeling. They can practice strategies for asking for support and supporting each other. The third stage is post-deployment. Here, personnel will debrief with an expert. They will discuss obstacles encountered in the field, where they may have experienced gaps in support, identify current needs for self-care, and learn about ways they can receive support during post-deployment. At each phase, participants will fill out a self-care plan. The plan will help them identify their personal symptoms of distress (sleeplessness, loss of appetite, etc) and determine a range of self-care practices that they can implement, including positive self-talk, identifying supportive people to talk to and daily practices to improve one’s well-being. During phase 2 and phase 3, trainers can use the training as an opportunity to identify individuals that may need further support or additional ways the organisation can support personnel. The training is relevant both for civilian and military personnel. The training should be tailored to the type of personnel and to the specific issues they may face in their area of deployment. The training team should include one expert on trauma and self-care and one individual who has been deployed to a similar environment with a similar mission. This will ensure expertise around the issues is accompanied by applicability to a particular setting. It would be helpful if the trainers had expertise in the region of deployment. Trainers should conduct additional research or bring in additional subject matter experts to address gaps in their own knowledge and experience.

All professionals working in CPPB should receive at least introductory training in self-care. This is particularly relevant for staff deployed into areas of armed conflict or in which they may experience stressful conditions. Proper training in self-care, however, is relevant across the field and should be provided both pre-deployment and in-mission. Post-mission support for self-care and well-being should also be addressed in the field to help reduce rates of mission-related trauma induced stress, anxiety and other challenges personnel may face, where such may be required.

This sub-curricula can be utilised for personnel who deployed to conflict environments to address stress from exposure to atrocities, pressures from intervening in these situations and duress experienced from being away from families. It can be used pre-/post-/during deployment and for civilians as well as military/police. Trainers who have expertise in areas of trauma/self-care/PTSD/stress-management may choose to deliver this training to appropriate personnel. In addition, trainers may benefit from having experience in similar conflict settings to trainees. The training would also benefit from a partnership with training organisations. This curricula is mainly designed to be delivered by teams of trainers.

When and why would you choose to take or send staff to training on this sub-curricula as a practitioner or deployment organisation / agency. This sub-curricula can be utilised for personnel who deployed to conflict environments to address stress from exposure to atrocities, pressures from intervening in these situations and duress experienced from being away from families. It can be used pre-/post-/during deployment and for civilians as well as military/police.

Organisations or consortia of organisations having deployed personnel in peacebuilding, peacekeeping, humanitarian relief and development cooperation missions in conflict areas have the option of exploring the curriculum and customizing it to their particular contexts and needs. While many organisations (especially the large ones) have in place some mechanisms of dealing and relieving stress for their personnel, very few if any include in their strategic plan and operations management procedures complex capacity building aiming at preventing, coping and managing and relief and healing stress and trauma generated by the engagement in violent conflict situations.

Described under Learning Objectives (above)

This curricula links mainly to overall pre-deployment training, post-mission support to personnel, resilience-building, stress management, evaluation, mission management and conflict sensitivity curricula.

PRE-DEPLOYMENT MODULE : The pre-deployment self-care training is designed for personnel working with different mandates in prevention and peacebuilding missions in order to understand the dynamics of the process of conflict-related stress, trauma, burn-out and the mechanisms to prevent, manage and heal them in all phases of mission.

DAY 1

Introduction to Self-Care Self- Awareness

Topics:

  • Introductions, Needs, Contributions and Expectations
  • Dimensions of Self-Care in Prevention and Peacebuilding Missions

Methods:

  • Profiles
  • Sociometrics
  • Presentations

Coaching Session Plan:

  • Sharing of Current Status and challenges
  • Therapy and Psycho-social Methods of Coping and Self-Care
  • Working out Action Plan till next Session

DAY 2

Experiences from the field

Topics:

  • From first symptoms to burn-out and trauma
  • Identifying Risks
  • Early Diagnosis
  • PTSD Biology and Psychological aspects
  • Available Therapies

Methods:

  • Presentations
  • Case Studies
  • Group Work

Coaching Session Plan:

  • Day 1

DAY 3

Dealing with acute Stress, Burn-out and Trauma: Available Therapies

Topics:

  • Psychological First Aid
  • WHO Therapies
  • CBT
  • EMDR

Methods:

  • Presentation
  • Group Work
  • Simulation
  • Experiential Learning

Coaching Session Plan:

  • Day 2

DAY 4

Prevention mechanisms and Building Resilience: Individual and Institutional Level

Topics:

  • Dimensions of Wellbeing
  • Personal Self-Care Programme
  • Institutional Responsibilities for well-being
  • TRIM (trauma risk management)
  • Creating resilient organisations

Methods:

  • Presentation
  • Self-Study
  • Individual Work
  • Coaching

Coaching Session Plan:

  • Day 3

DAY 5

Accompaniment and Continuous assessment of Trauma, Stress and Burn-out, Follow-through

Topics:

  • Planning personal and institutional Follow-through
  • Peer support
  • Evaluation of the programme

Methods:

  • Presentation
  • Peer review
  • Focus Groups

Coaching Session Plan:

  • -

Deployment Module:

In mission training modules consist of individual coaching sessions done periodically (at least bi-monthly and depending on the type of the mission even several times a week and a 2 to 3 days Monitoring and Assessment trainings aiming at following up on the implementation of self-care plans, monitoring the implementation infrastructure and designing realignment and adjustment strategies.

The most relevant aspect is trauma -sensitivity. However all sensitivities are relevant with the note that the focus is how they apply to the individual level of the CPPB worked and at the same time how, due to stress and pressure the actions of CPPB workers could impact the communities where they work and the conflict dynamics.

What methodologies and approaches can be used when providing training / capacity building on this sub-curricula. Detail and describe these, providing narrative and explanation of which can be used and why/how they can be of value on this sub-curricula. This curricula is designed based on a staged approach, following the different moments of the mission. The first stage covers the pre-mission phase and aims mainly at prevention and capacity building related to planning and implementing resilience at individual and organisation levels. The second stage happens in-mission and uses coaching and brief 1 or 2-day modules aiming at monitoring and further training on managing stress and monitoring the effectiveness of resilience mechanisms. The third stage again uses a combination between coaching and 2-3 days modules for recovery, healing and psycho-social reintegration of personnel affected by trauma, stress and burn-out.

A similar staged-approach has been recommended also by Antares foundation in their publication “Managing Stress in Humanitarian Workers” (2012)

    In-training methods include:

  • Presentations
  • Case studies and Testimonials from deployed personnel as well as specialists who have worked on the prevention, management and relief of stress and trauma
  • Group Work and Peer Review
  • Experiential learning (including reflection, breathing and relaxation techniques and counselling)

BOX: IAHV interventions relieve trauma and acute emotional symptoms with special breathing techniques that differ from and complement traditional psychotherapy. Provided worldwide, Sudarshan Kriya® and accompanying Practices (SK&P) are time-honoured stress management/health promotion techniques whose health benefits are being validated by modern medical science. Independent research has shown that SK&P significantly: reduces levels of stress (reduce cortisol - the "stress" hormone); supports the immune system; increases optimism; relieves anxiety and depression (mild, moderate and severe); increases anti-oxidant protection; enhances brain function (increased mental focus, calmness and recovery from stressful stimuli); and enhances well-being and peace of mind. In conflict and war zones, SK&P are particularly helpful in relieving trauma and helping individuals overcome painful experiences and emotions. (Source: IAHV Training Info Brochure)

As systematic and intentional training on self-care is relatively a new domain of prevention and peacebuilding missions, this is generally an innovative field, with content and methods representing frontiers of the field. In terms of content, while traditional preparation and training has focused on psychological aspects (symptoms, diagnosis, treatment) recent approaches focus more on comprehensive aspects including following the connections and mutual influences between psychological - physical - cognitive levels. Another aspect relating the innovation refers to the focus shifting from the individual to the contextual placing of the individual within psycho-socio-cultural realities of his/her mission. In terms of methods, more experiential learning has been introduced in training (breathing, relaxation, therapies etc).

Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Course Title Link to Course Outline (if available) Link to Relevant Publications / Resources / Handbooks / Toolkits used in the course (if available)
IAHV Providing for Peacebuilders: Personal Resilience, Stress-Management and Psycho-Social Skills n/a -
Headington Institute Several Topics (Resilience, Stress & Burnout, Trauma, Women and Gender) www.headington-institute.org www.headington-institute.org
Title Organisation / Institution Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
CONFRONTING STRESS AND TRAUMA: A RESOURCE KIT FOR PERSONNEL DEALING WITH VIOLENT CONFL CTS AND NATURAL DISASTERS Farrell, D., with Blenkinsop, C., Carriere, R., Croci, C., O’Donnell, K., and Pidcoke, H. (2017) Confronting Stress and Trauma: A Resource Kit for Personnel Dealing with Violent Conflicts and Natural Disasters. Worcester: University of Worcester, Geneva. 2017 Pre-published edition
Managing stress in humanitarian workers Guidelines for good practice © Antares Foundation, March 2012 2012 www.antaresfoundation.org
Trauma, Stress and Self-Care Applied Workshop for Practitioners Facilitators - 2015 pcdnetwork.org

Civilian / NGO

Course content will be tailored for specific stakeholders to best reflect the types of difficulties they may encounter in the field. Civilians working for NGOs, for instance, may be at risk of secondary trauma through listening to stories of victims and may feel helpless or overwhelmed by the stories they hear.

EEAS / Diplomats / Civil Servants

Diplomats and civil servants may be more removed from atrocities on the ground but may make decisions about how personnel are deployed or what resources are allocated. Consequently, a training for this population would focus on sensitizing them to the issues that workers on the ground may experience, develop empathy, and prioritise programmes that may help promote self-care.

Military / Armed Forces and Police

Military and police are highly likely to have first-hand experience with violence. They would benefit from pre-deployment training that would focus on building resilience, developing skills for self-care, and understanding resources available. They would also benefit from debriefing during and after missions that would provide support and advice to this population.

Introduction

Women and men experience armed conflict differently. Men tend to occupy positions of power as combatants, politicians and negotiators (peacebuilding initiative, 2008). Women, who tend to bear the brunt of the caring and household responsibilities, are at risk of gender-based violence during and after war. For example, rape has been used as a tactic in war in several contexts, including Bosnia, Rwanda. In addition, displaced women are vulnerable to sexual assault in camps. Such violence or threat of violence restricts their freedom of movement, risks affecting their mental health, and can undermine their ability to care for others.

In the post-conflict environment, the high degree of militarisation during political transition, the continued dominance of combatants and the lack of political stability continue to increase women’s risk of domestic violence, rape, and harassment and also to make it difficult to access support.

Security forces , including peacekeeping troops, police and military engaged in ensuring law and order in a society, may encounter victims during war, in refugee camps or during the post-conflict transition. Security forces may need to protect a woman who is in danger or take her to a safe refuge. They may attempt to get statements from women about their experience with violence or collect evidence from the woman when immediately after an incident when she is vulnerable and traumatised.

Sensitivity is a key sub-category for this training. Sensitivity involves promoting understanding and developing awareness of the specific circumstances of groups of people who are often marginalised, such as women or non-Western cultures. It also encompasses a recognition that a one-size-fits-all approach to CPPB does not account for variations among specific cultures or conflict settings. Finally, it challenges stakeholders to pay attention to specific needs within the population that is being served. This may include trauma or diverse learning needs.

This training aims to enhance gender sensitivity through recognising the specific dynamics of gender-based violence. In addition, the training promotes trauma sensitivity through highlighting the dynamics of trauma and the needs of survivors who have been traumatised. Next, it promotes cultural and conflict sensitivity through identifying that the dynamics of GBV may be different based on culture and conflict, and that responses should be tailor-made to the needs within the specific area of deployment.

This curricula can be adapted for other stakeholders, such as those working for NGOs, international organisations, and peacekeeping missions. All would benefit from developing attitudes, skills and knowledge on working with survivors. The training can be made applicable to the specific audience by including case studies and role play scenarios that are specific to what each stakeholder might encounter.

Examples within the training should be tailor-made for the particular countries of deployment and specific dynamics of training.

  • Participants will be able to define gender-based violence. They will be able to interpret the UN definition of gender-based violence as it pertains to UN Resolution 1325. They will develop an understanding of why one’s gender can impact one’s vulnerability toward specific types of violence and how violence can impact males and females differently. Moreover, participants will examine the root causes of gender-based violence as perpetuating dominance of men over women and explore the roles of masculinity and femininity in perpetuating or challenging violence.
  • Participants will learn about the dynamics of sexual and domestic violence and the various ways war may exacerbate these issues. This includes an exploration of: 1) rape as a war crime; 2) sexual violence among internally displaced persons and refugees; 3) the impact of weapons and political instability on domestic violence. Moreover, participants will explore cultural forms of GBV--such as forced marriage, female genital cutting, trafficking, honour killing, dowry deaths. The forms of GBV that will be focused on will relate to the specific circumstances within the country of deployment. They will learn reasons for these practices, prevalence rates and intervention strategies. This lesson will highlight the importance of sensitivity to culture, local context, and the specific political conflict.
  • Participants will practice their skills in identifying and responding to victims/survivors of GBV in a culturally sensitive and gender sensitive manner. This includes sharping analytical skills so they can appropriately evaluate specific situations they may encounter and assess strengths and weaknesses of security force responses to particular scenarios. They will explore the principle of do no harm and learn what types of responses may do more harm than good. In addition, they will develop their communication skills in order to more effectively communicate with survivors. This includes identifying the signs of trauma, learning skills in communicating with people in trauma, ensuring that one’s demeanour and actions do not intimidate the victim or exacerbate her/his trauma. Finally, they will enhance knowledge of helping organisations and promote networking skills so that they can develop relationships with partner organisations and signpost survivors to these organisations.
  • Participants will explore social attitudes that perpetuate GBV and determine ways that attitude transformation can be enacted in the hopes of preventing GBV.
  • In addition, participants will increase their sensitivity of gender issues, issues of culture and conflict within GBV, and develop a sensitivity for tailoring interventions to local context.
  • In addition, through hearing stories of women who have experienced GBV, for instance, participants will develop empathy towards victims.
  • Develop policies and practices that aim to prevent GBV on missions. Security forces will also do a self-inventory to ensure that they have structures and attitudes in place to ensure that they promote gender equality. They will learn to understand the mission mandate in relationship to GBV and apply institutional principles.

This course responds to increasing international recognition in the way women in armed conflict may experience gender-based violence and UN Resolution 1325 that calls for international actors and governments to take action to protect women and girls from gender-based violence and to incorporate gender equality into peacebuilding efforts.

Deployed personnel may encounter women who are either at risk of GBV or who have experienced it. They need to be aware of what they can do to prevent incidents from happening and to ensure those who have experienced it are treated with dignity, respect and empathy. Personnel also should be aware of the signs that an individual is experiencing trauma, how to be sensitive to their needs and how to help them access the help they need.

Sensitivity in Working with Survivors of Gender-Based Violence is relevant for all phases of a mission and all stakeholders working in situations and contexts of armed violence, pre-armed conflict and post-war recovery and peace consolidation where people may be at risk of gender-based violence. While this sub-curricula is specifically developed for security forces, it is also particularly relevant for peacekeeping missions as well as the breadth of NGOs, development agencies, and state- and non-state actors working in contexts of populations at risk or susceptible to gender-based violence.

Pre-deployment or in-mission military/police who work with women on any level. While this course may focus directly on security forces, it could be used with all personnel working with women in the field, such as those working for NGOs or international organisations. This training will identify differences in men’s and women’s experience of war but will not focus on violence targeted toward men. In part, this is due to the face that 1) many of men’s experiences are more visible; 2) while some men do experience sexual or domestic violence, the vast majority of survivors of such violence are women; 3) including the range of experiences of men within this training may make this training too broad and risk not spending adequate time any issues. A more basic training that discusses the broad dynamics of GBV among men and women can be developed to address these issues. This training will also acknowledge that GBV can be perpetrated by security forces and explore strategies for preventing this from happening as well as responding swiftly when it does occur.

Training institutions may choose to deliver this sub-curricula if they have the following:

  • Institutional expertise on gender-based violence and conflict, experience working with victims/survivors of gender-based violence and knowledge of 1325 and other international legislation relevant to violence against women.
  • Ability to develop knowledge, attitudes and skills on the competencies addressed
  • Local partners
  • Ability to work with multiple stakeholders (This training operates from the assumption that multi-sectoral coordination is most effective in challenging GBV and that security forces should be developing relationships with stakeholders such as health services and NGOs working on GBV.)

Training institutions and trainers may also consider delivery of this sub-curricula or integration of this sub-curricula into training programmes when:

  • Providing pre-deployment or in-mission training to security forces and peacekeeping operations
  • In the context of trainings addressing
    • Gender and peacebuilding
    • Dealing with / handling trauma and violence
    • Protection of Civilians

Practitioners and deployment agencies / security forces and peacekeeping missions may consider this sub-curricula:

  • Because you may encounter women who may have experienced gender violence in the field
  • To improve awareness of gender-based violence
  • To increase proficiencies in working with victims/survivors

Attitude

Attitudes that should be developed within a training for security forces working with survivors of GBV are:

I. Develop an attitude that promotes gender equality

This training will enable participants to reflect upon sexism and gender equality that they observe in daily life and explore the connection between this inequality and violence against women. They will examine traditional gender role socialisation contributing to GBV. In so doing, they may develop attitudes that promote gender equality.

II. Empathy toward survivors

This training is designed to increase empathy to survivors of GBV through sensitising security forces to the difficulties survivors experience, reaffirming that they are not to blame, and understanding how to work with survivors (especially those experiencing trauma). The training aims to promote respect for survivors and help participants approach survivors with understanding, care, and a desire to help through promoting empowerment.

They will also reflect upon attitudes that may be counter-productive and provide further harm to survivors. Examples include victim-blaming, paternalistic attitudes of telling the survivor what to do rather than helping them make choices for themselves, intimidating or belittling a survivor, discounting the survivors experience.

III. Sensitivity to local contexts, including culture and conflict

This involves promoting understanding and developing awareness of the specific circumstances of groups of people who are often marginalised, such as women or non-Western cultures. It also encompasses a recognition that a one-size-fits-all approach to CPPB does not account for variations among specific cultures or conflict settings. Finally, it challenges stakeholders to pay attention to specific needs within the population that is being served.

Skills

Participants should learn skills for assisting and empowering survivors of GBV. This includes how to identify needs of an individual who experiences GBV, how to communicate under these circumstances, what is necessary to create a safe environment (for collecting evidence, take statements, etc), understanding the limits to what you can do for the person, and ensuring that you do no harm. Creating a safe environment includes learning techniques such as separating the survivor from the perpetrator and finding a quiet, safe environment in which to talk, routinely asking women if they would like a woman to speak with, and putting protective measures in place to ensure safety in court.

Participants will develop skills for respectful communication so that survivors feel heard and empowered. For example, participants will learn active listening and communication skills. They will learn ways to support and empower survivors through helping them understand their options and connecting them to appropriate resources. Participants also learn to avoid destructive communication tactics, such as talking down to a survivor, telling them what to do, discounting their story or interrupting them. Participants learn the way their actions can either promote or hinder the empowerment of survivors. They can develop skills in planning and developing policy on GBV; skills to identify signs of GBV and skills to evaluate GBV interventions.

Knowledge

Participants will increase their knowledge of gender-based violence through learning the types and prevalence of such violence during and after war. They will also explore reasons women experience gender-based violence and what can be done to prevent such violence. In addition, participants will develop knowledge of the potential impacts of violence on women and identify signs and symptoms of trauma.

They will develop a knowledge of how to work with survivors of GBV. They will explore good and bad practices in caring for survivors of gender-based violence, including developing an understanding of how security forces may contribute to GBV. This body of knowledge will help them to be sensitive to the pervasiveness of such violence, recognise different forms of gender-based violence, and know how it can affect a victim/survivor. This knowledge lays the groundwork for attitude-development and skill-building.

The following sub-curricula may be directly linked to the Sensitivity in Working with Survivors of Gender-Based Violence sub-curricula when developing more comprehensive training programmes or seeking to integrate in development of core competencies and operational capabilities in this field. Sub-curricula on Sensitivity in Working with Survivors of Gender-Based Violence may also be relevant to integrate into training programmes and curricula addressing these fields:

  • Pre-Deployment Training & Mission Preparation
  • Gender Mainstreaming, Women and Peacebuilding
  • Protection of Civilians
  • Human Rights and Peacebuilding / Prevention

Introduction

Initially, participants will introduce themselves, do an ice-breaker or getting to know you exercise, and lay ground rules for a safe space. Then, participants will discuss what they understand their role to be when they are deployed. The trainer may ask participants the following: Has anyone been on a similar mission before. If so, how much did you work with women or on gender? Did you find gender violence was prevalent on your previous mission? Next, the trainer will ask participants what they know about gender-based violence in the area of deployment and when they might encounter this issue. The module will conclude with the trainer providing some specific data on gender violence in this region.

Module 1: Reflecting on Gender

Participants will discuss what gender means. Then, in small groups, they will list examples of traditional gender role expectations within their own culture as they were growing up. They will be asked how often people fulfilled these expectations and the consequences of deviating from this. Participants will also investigate how similar or different messages they received were and whether they feel these messages have changed over time. After participants report back to the larger group, the link between gender roles, power, and violence will be explored. Moreover, we will examine what social institutions promote attitudes that perpetuate violence.

Module 2: Understanding Gender-Based Violence During

This unit begins with a discussion of the roles that men and women tend to play in war and the way that these roles shape the way each gender experiences conflict. It will examine the roles of men during war, including that of combatants and decision makers. It also mentions the ways that men tend to be victimised during war, including the way they may be casualties of violence and their vulnerability to forced labour. The unit then examines women’s vulnerability to gender-based violence, displacement, and economic insecurity – both during war / armed conflict and in contexts of post-war recovery and peace consolidation. Then, we explore the types of gender-based violence women may experience and the way the way war may exacerbate such violence. For instance, rape has been used as a tactic of war by security forces and paramilitaries in numerous conflicts. In addition, women are vulnerable to sexual violence during displacement and at refugee camps. Moreover, the presence of weapons and the heightened degree of militarised masculinity may impact the levels of domestic violence. Political unrest and control by paramilitaries and security forces may limit a woman’s ability to escape domestic violence.

Next, we explore the causes of gender-based violence, operating from the premise that violence stems from a desire to maintain power and control over others. Violence promotes male dominance within social institutions. It allows men to control public realm and restrict women’s freedom of movement and sense of security. Violence reinforces the male as head of household in intimate partner relationships. Finally, through denying women agency, violence can impact one’s self-confidence, mental health and self-esteem. Gender-based violence may also be used as a specific form of violence / attack upon the ‘enemy’ and be ordered or at least permitted / condoned by superior officers and political/group leadership. This unit will include reading of women’s stories, poetry, songs and video clips to make the material more personal, thus promoting empathy development. Using these materials, participants will actively highlight causes, types, and impacts of violence. They will identify forms of gender-based violence security forces have encountered in selected conflict zones. Using a case study approach, they will describe forms of gender-based violence within a particular case study. They will also analyse strategies security forces used to respond to gender-based violence. After examining strengths and weaknesses of a particular response within their case study, they will develop a protocol of how the security forces could have more effectively responded.

Module 3: Working in the Aftermath

This unit will explore the diverse responses and diverse needs of women who experience gender-based violence. Not all women will be traumatised, and women may also be affected by trauma differently. We look at factors that contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of the illness. Then we examine how we as members of security forces can interact with women who experienced violence and may be in trauma in a sensitive way. This includes how to identify needs of an individual and triggers to trauma, how to communicate under these circumstances, what is necessary to create a safe environment (for collecting evidence, take statements, etc), understanding the limits to what you can do for the person, and ensuring that you do no harm. This unit will include a small group activity where participants read a scenario whereby a member of security forces must work with a victim of violence. After discussing the scenario, participants will identify the signs that might make them suspect this person may be experiencing PTSD and what measures you could enact to improve her sense of security. After role playing the scenario in small groups, participants will come together as a large group to review helpful and unhelpful responses (i.e. responses that may cause harm).

Module 4: Changing the Climate that Promotes GBV

This unit explores ways to prevent GBV. It emphasises the importance of creating a culture of respect, equality, and sensitivity as aspects of prevention. Participants will reflect on the ways they observe gender inequality in daily life and explore ways they can challenge that inequality. Participants will be given scenarios and they will discuss and role play ways of challenging a culture that promotes GBV. They will also reflect on ways their organisation can create a non-sexist environment. This involves reflecting on where sexism may be embedded in the culture or structure of an organisation and ensuring that it prevents and responds to harassment or abuse.

Module 5: Institutional Approaches to GBV

This unit explores what participants can do within their institutions to better respond to and prevent GBV. This can include drafting policy, gender-sensitive planning, devising plans to educate staff on indicators of GBV and on evaluating interventions.

Beginner / Entry

Entry-level programmes / training should focus on ensuring that participants adopt an attitude that promotes gender equality and an understanding of the dynamics of gender-based violence. This should be done in a way that engages participants in personal reflection and highlights dynamics in their society and the region of deployment that promote GBV.

Intermediate / Advanced

More advanced courses will focus more heavily on skill development. This will involve exploring intervention and prevention strategies in a variety of scenarios. Participants, through role plays, case studies, and small group discussions will focus more heavily on the detail of working with survivors. In addition, more advanced participants will focus less on learning basic concepts and more on analysing their practice. Here, the trainer should elicit from the group their experience and knowledge of GBV, questions they have, stories of successes and failures. Using a reflection session will allow participants to learn from each other and make them more able to apply knowledge.

Expert / Specialisation

Expert courses will focus more deeply on best practices and lessons learned in the field and will utilise examples from participants’ experiences as well as material from other reports/documents. Through simulations and case studies, participants will use collaborative problem-solving to devise a strategy and respond to an issue or crisis. They will hone decision-making skills as well as skills for communicating with staff and with participants. Participants will also explore in greater depth how to respond to local contexts and dynamics. Finally, participants will explore ways to put in place policies and strategies for missions to best support survivors.

Conflict Sensitivity/local knowledge

Sensitivity to conflict in general and specific dynamics of the conflict where security forces work will be integrated into thetraining.

  1. During the introduction, participants will discuss their local knowledge of gender and violence in the area of deployment. Trainers will provide some information to further their local knowledge.
  2. When exploring gender roles, participants will explore roles where they grew up as well as roles in the conflict zone they will be deployed to.
  3. The unit on GBV and war addresses the specific ways that political conflict and GBV intersect.
  4. Scenarios from small group activities will be situated in specific conflict.

Cultural Sensitivity

The trainer will approach the training in a culturally sensitive manner. This involves respecting diversity within cultures. Participants will recognise the danger of viewing some cultures as superior and more advanced as well as the danger of demonising other cultures for their treatment of women. For instance, Western cultures are often viewed as more ‘evolved’, while Islamic societies are often demonised for their treatment of women. Participants will learn that GBV may manifest itself differently both across different cultures and within a culture, and that it is counterproductive to stereotype or judge. The trainer will convey that while GBV is a universal problem with similar roots. When exploring the types of GBV (honour killing, FGM, etc), we will attempt to understand where each practice comes from, why it continues, and what intervention strategies are most effective. Finally, they will learn what activists across the world are trying to challenge their own societies on these issues.

Gender Sensitivity

Increasing sensitivity is a main goal of this training. We attempt to improve one’s awareness and ability to analyse from a gender perspective. Also, we aim to develop attitudes that promote gender sensitivity and to help security forces see their direct and indirect roles in combating gender-based violence.

Sensitivity in working with survivors:

  • Awareness of the range of experiences of survivors
  • Attentiveness to the needs of survivors and recognising that needs may be different
  • Do no harm – not to re-traumatise them through intimidating or derogatory language and demeanour
  • Ensuring female officers are present if the survivor feels more comfortable working with a woman
  • Practicing ways to sensitively communicate with survivors or potential survivors
  • Creating a work environment that is sensitive to issues of harassment and gender role stereotyping and that promotes equality through policies and through culture.

Trauma Sensitivity

We have included one module dedicated to improving one’s understanding of trauma and learning how to work with people who have PTSD. Also, trainers will acknowledge at the start of the course and throughout the sensitive nature of some of the material and inform participants what they can do if it becomes too much. Trainers will also warn participants before any graphic images.

Sensitivity to Diverse Learning Needs

This course is designed to accommodate diverse learning needs through a variety of methods, including small group case studies to analyse, role plays, discussions, mini-lecture/inputs. It should work well for those who may not feel comfortable talking in a large group and would work better in intimate settings. It allows participants to learn by doing, through listening to and talking with others, through arts/media. Diversifying methods can keep attention of participants.

In addition, the trainer should try to determine in advance of the training if there are any special needs of participants – if there are visual or hearing impairments, physical disabilities, or if interpreters are needed. At the start of the class, the trainer should ask anyone with special needs to speak to her/him.

Official EU documents:

  • European Parliament (2000), Resolution on Participation of Women in Peaceful Conflict Resolution.
  • European Parliament (2006), Resolution on Women in armed conflicts and their role in post-conflict reconstruction.
  • Council of the EU and European Commission (2008), Comprehensive Approach to the EU Implementation of UNSCRs 1325 and 1820 on Women, Peace and Security.
  • General Secretariat of the Council of the EU (2010), Indicators for the comprehensive approach to the EU implementation of the UNSCR 1325 and 1820 on women, peace and security.

Manuals and other resource materials:

  • Women in Peacebuilding Resource and Training Manual 2004 emu.edu
  • GIZ Toolkit: Promoting Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations and Peace Processes Prepared by the programme Promoting Gender Equality and Women’s Rights. nbn-resolving.de
  • Report The Effects of Conflict on the Health and Well-being of Women and Girls in Darfur www.unicef.org
  • Elisabeth Rehn and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) (2002)

References:

  • Aspartates Amt (2017). Women peace and security. Federal Government’s National Action Plan. www.auswaertiges-amt.de , retrieved on 02.03.2016.
  • EULEX Kosovo (2016). Gender Resource Centre. www.eulex-kosovo.eu, retrieved on 11.12.2016.
  • FBA, Folke Bernadotte Academy (2017). Women, Peace and Security. fba.se, retrieved on 05.03.2017.
  • Peacebuilding initiative (2008). Empowerment: Women & Gender Issues: Women, Gender & Peacebuilding Processes. www.peacebuildinginitiative.org, retrieved on 02.03.2017.
  • UN DPKO (2017). Women, peace and security. www.un.org , retrieved on 02.03.2017.
  • UNSC (2000). United Nations Security Council. Resolution 1325. documents-dds-ny.un.org, retrieved on 11.02.2017.
  • Villella’s, M.; Urrutia, P.; Villella’s, A. & Fisas, V. (2016). Gender in EU Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding. Policy and Practice. Deliverable 2.2: Scoping Study on Gender, WOSCAP. www.woscap.eu, retrieved on 05.03.2017.
  • UN. Women Watch www.un.org

Gender:

  • Tools on Gender mainstreaming www.genderingermandevelopment.net
  • Gender Analysis www.genderingermandevelopment.net
  • Gender-Responsive Project Management www.genderingermandevelopment.net
  • Gender-Sensitive Monitoring and Evaluation Gender-Sensitive Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Gender-Responsive Financing Gender-Responsive Financing
  • Working with Men as Change Agents Working with Men as Change Agents
  • Training on Gender Issues Training on Gender Issues
  • Gender Quiz Gender Quiz
  • Bastick, M., & Valasek, K. (Eds.). (2008). Gender & security sector reform: Toolkit. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF); OSCE/ODIHR; UN-INSTRAW.
  • Conciliation Resources (2015). Gender & conflict analysis toolkit for peacebuilders. www.c-r.org, retrieved on 15.02.2017.
  • Denham, T., Bastick, M., & Valasek, K. (2008). Police reform and gender. In M. Bastick & K. Valasek (Eds.), Gender & security sector reform. Toolkit. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF); OSCE/ODIHR; UN-INSTRAW.
  • Elroy, G. (2016). A Gender Perspective in CSDP. Training Manual. Folke Bernadotte Academy. fba.s, retrieved on 30.01.2017.
  • Kleppe, T. T. (2008). Gender training for security sector personnel: Good practices and lessons learned. In M. Bastick & K. Valasek (Eds.), Gender & security sector reform. Toolkit. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF); OSCE/ODIHR
  • UN-INSTRAW.NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (2010). Template for Pre-Deployment Gender Training. Topics and learning objectives. www.nato.int, retrieved on 03.05.2017.
  • Reimann, C. (2013). Trainer manual: Mainstreaming gender into peacebuilding trainings. Berlin, Eschborn: Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF); Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). d-nb.info, retrieved on 19.02.2017.
  • Saferworld & Uganda Land Alliance (2016). Toolkit Gender Analysis of Conflict. www.saferworld.org.uk, retrieved on 17.02.2017.
  • United Nations. 2014. Department of Peace-Keeping and Field Operations. Gender Forward-Looking Strategy 2014-2018. www.un.org
  • United Nations (2004). Gender Resource Package for Peacekeeping Operations. www.un.org, retrieved on 02.02.2017.
  • Cordaid (2016). Handbook on Integrating Gender in Peacebuilding and Statebuilding. www.cordaid.org , retrieved on 09.03.2017.

Reference:

  • Rubli, S., & Baumgartner, E. (2016). Gender and Dealing with the Past (Essentials 4/ 2016). www.swisspeace.ch, retrieved on 20.02.2017.
  • Buckley-Zistel, S., & Stanley, R. (2012). Gender in transitional justice. Houndsmill, Basingstoke, Hampshire, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Olsson, L., Åhlin, M., Sundin, M., & Lidström, A. (2014). Gender, peace and security in the European Union's field missions: Assessments of EUMM Georgia and EUPOL COPPS Palestinian territories with observations from EULEX Kosovo. Stockholm: Folke Bernadotte Academy. emu.edu, retrieved on 20.01.2017.
  • Myrttinen, H., Naujoks, J., & El-Bushra, J. (2014). Re-thinking gender in peacebuilding. London: International Alert. www.international-alert.org, retrieved on 20.02.2017.
  • Conciliation Resources (2015). Gender & conflict analysis toolkit for peacebuilders. www.c-r.org, retrieved on 22.02.2017.
  • GIZ, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (2017). Gender knowledge Platform. www.genderingermandevelopment.net, retrieved on 17.01.2017.
  • GIZ, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (2012). Gender Strategy. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. www.giz.de, retrieved on 22.02.2017.
  • International Alert 2017. Gender. www.international-alert.org, retrieved on 14.02.2017.
  • Myrttinen, H., Naujoks, J., & El-Bushra, J. (2014). Re-thinking gender in peacebuilding. London: International Alert. www.international-alert.org, retrieved on 20.02.2017.
  • Myrttinen. H; Popovic, N. & Khattab, L. (2016). ‘Measuring gender’ in peacebuilding - Evaluating peacebuilding efforts from a gender-relational perspective. International Alert. www.international-alert.org, retrieved on 17.01.2017.
  • Reimann, C. (2013). Trainer manual: Mainstreaming gender into peacebuilding trainings. Berlin, Eschborn: Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF); Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). d-nb.info, retrieved on 19.02.2017.
  • Saferworld (2017). Understanding the relationship between gender, peace and security. www.saferworld.org.uk, retrieved on 23.02.2017.

Currently, UN Res 1325 and country-specific methods of implementation are very popular foci for gender issues. However, methodologies utilised for the trainings tend to get bogged down in this content without focusing on application or attitudes. It is crucial that methodologies focus on creating attitude change and skill development. Moreover, knowledge developed within this course should focus on increasing understanding and practical knowledge. We recommend a mixed method approach to cater for diverse learning styles and to achieve an in-depth understanding of the issue.

Case Study Approach: Participants will use a case study approach to analyse specific cases where security forces used to certain strategies to respond to gender-based violence. After examining strengths and weaknesses of a particular response within their case study, they can collaboratively develop a protocol of how the security forces could have more effectively responded.

Small and large group reflection: For example, in small groups, participants will list examples of traditional gender role expectations within their own culture as they were growing up. They will be asked how often people fulfilled these expectations and the consequences of deviating from this. Participants will also investigate how similar or different messages they received were and whether they feel these messages have changed over time. Through reflecting on personal experience, an understanding of gender roles will resonate more fully with the participants. Here, small groups can provide a more intimate and less intimidating space for participants to discuss personal experience.

Building empathy through the arts: Trainers can utilise literature, poetry, songs and film clips to make the material more personal, thus promoting empathy development. Using these materials, participants will actively highlight causes, types, and impacts of violence on a more tangible level. Trainers may use care to warn participants if disturbing images will be forthcoming and ensure that what they have chosen is not likely to invoke trauma in individuals.

Simulations and role plays: One example includes a small group activity where participants read a scenario whereby a member of security forces must work with a victim of violence. After discussing the scenario, participants will identify the signs that might make them suspect this person may be experiencing PTSD and what measures you could enact to improve her sense of security. After role playing the scenario in small groups, participants will come together as a large group to review helpful and unhelpful responses (i.e. responses that may cause harm).

Guest Speakers: Trainers can bring in guest speakers who have worked with survivors to describe their experiences and evaluate what practices have been more and less successful. The vivid and real-life examples the guest speaker can describe will heighten learning.

Games and Learning Activities: Games and activities can be used to make learning more fun. Rather than defaulting to a PowerPoint lecture, trainers can convey new knowledge through games. For example, participants can form teams and answer quiz questions with the winning group getting a prise. An activity such as the walking debate can allow participants to express their opinions on an issue while also giving them an opportunity to move around. This activity can be used to explore myths around GBV. Here, the trainer reads a statement and participants move to the appropriate side of the room based on whether it is a myth or fact.

This sub-curricula is innovative because:

  • It focuses on how to empower / support local and national structures and initiatives for protection and care of survivors.
  • It prioritises the need to include more trauma support and counselling or the use of forum theatre and healing / survivors circles to empower/support survivors.
  • It acknowledges the way security forces themselves may be perpetrators. In addition, it acknowledges that security forces can cause harm when working with survivors.
  • It emphasises measures that could be done within security forces to better respond to survivors. This may include increase the number of women in security forces who are available to provide support and care to survivors, partnerships with victims‘ organisations.
  • It emphasises the importance of multi-stakeholder approaches and cooperation across sectors.
  • It emphasises the need to change attitudes which contribute to / enable GBV and strengthen legal provisions, protection and accountability of perpetrators.

The following approaches which can be integrated into trainings or complementary to trainings can assist development or improvement of capacity for security forces to respond to GBV:

  • Film, art and literature: One valuable way of developing empathy towards survivors of GBV is to utilise resources of film, art and literature. Such media can humanise survivors. In addition, it can be used as a tool for generating discussion or teaching analytical skills.
  • Utilising Evaluation Reports on Best Practices and Lessons Learned: Utilising these materials within a training can improve the capacity of organisations to learn from the experience of others to identify challenges and adopt strategies to respond to such challenges.
  • Case Learning / Situation Review: Case studies can raise capacity of mission staff to prepare them for handling specific situations in the field. Case studies can also be utilised to develop policy and procedures to respond more effectively to situations.
  • Single or Multi-Sectoral / Multi-Stakeholder Field-based simulations and response exercises: As in the field of humanitarian and emergency preparedness, field-based simulations and exercises to exercise preparation for specific incidents/situations which may be faced in the field in relation to GBV can be an effective way to improve capacity of front-line responders
  • Joint Evaluations / Multi-Mission/Country Evaluations: A critical approach to capacity development includes joint evaluation of what has been done / experienced so far in that mission/context. Even better can be ‘multi-mission’ evaluations to gather a broader scope and depth of experience and learnings across mission contexts. If this can be implemented as multi-sector, multi-stakeholder approaches and with local communities and national institutions / stakeholders, then stakeholders may be able to develop an integrated strategy for tackling GBV.
  • Online / ICT-based real situation simulations: Missions and organisations in the field may also wish to develop training materials for pre-deployment personnel through video tutorials, case studies, interviews from the field, and discussions with mission staff These can be used for training / developing participants’ response to different situations and improving attitudes, skills and knowledge of GBV.
Name of the Provider: Institution / Training Centre / Academy Course Title Link to Course Outline (if available) Link to Relevant Publications / Resources / Handbooks / Toolkits used in the course (if available)
Peace Support Operation Centre – BiH Utility of Gender in Peace Support Operations Course 2016 - -
Kurve Wustrow Social Change, Gender Equality and Feminist Tools for Change - -
Kurve Wustrow Gender-Sensitive Planning in Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding - -
ZIF Gender Adviser Course - -
ENTRi/FBA Integrating Gender into Peacebuilding Training - -
ENTRi/FBA Gender & Leadership - -
ESDC A Comprehensive Approach to Gender in Operations - -
Swiss Peace Gender Equality and Peacebuilding Gender in Conflict & Peacebuilding Training (These courses do not explicitly deal with gender mainstreaming but rather women. - -
ZIF Women, Peace and Security - -
SwissPeace Gender in Conflict and Peacebuilding Training - -
IECAH Armed Conflict and Peacebuilding (Web-based in Spanish) - -
UNITAR Women, Leadership and Peacebuilding (online) (exclusive for UN volunteers) - -
Title Organisation / Institution Year URL (if available) or Publishing House & City
Gender Perspective in CSDP Folke Bernedette Academy 2016 fba.se
Trainer Manual: Mainstreaming Gender into Peacebuilding Trainings - - www.dmeforpeace.org
- ACCORD - www.accord.org.za
Using CEDAW and UN Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security for Advancing Gender Equality UN Women - trainingcentre.unwomen.or
The Role of Women in Stabilization and Reconstruction - - www.usip.org
- Women watch - www.un.org
Women in War and Peace USIP - www.usip.org
Gender, Conflict and Development World Bank - siteresources.worldbank.org