|References & Further Information
|It is a means of objectively assessing an institution based on commonly agreed principles or standards of practice to enhance institutional credibility and quality performance.
|Activity theory/Activity system
|Activity theory directs focus not towards individual learners but to the ‘activity system’ in which individual learners operate. An example would be of agencies engaged in peacebuilding in a specific conflict context, or staff in an organisation or mission engaged in specific CPPB activities or working towards a precise specific objective or impact goal. It could also refer to the constellation of actors / stakeholders involved in a specific ‘sector’ in a conflict context – e.g. working in DDR and Security Sector Reform. Activity Theory and Activity Systems as concepts in eLearning draw attention towards the competencies and performance capabilities needed at the level of the system – constellation of actors – and the roles, responsibilities and functions they have to achieve CPPB goals.
|Adult learning assumes adults learn differently than children and that they must be engaged in the learning process
|A concept which defines the framework for adult learning. The concept was popularised by Malcolm Knowles
|Knowles, M. (1980). The modern practice of adult education from Pedagogy to Andragogy. Revised and updated ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Cambridge Adult Education, p. 43. See www.metrostate.edu
|Refer to learning tools inspired from arts and that utilise artistic mediums. In the context of peace training, these tools aim to achieve learning objectives related to capacities (knowledge, skills, values and attitudes) that support prevention, conflict transformation, reconciliation and healing
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), 'D3.4 Current Training Methods for Peacebuilding and Conflict Prevention', Report, p. 67
|ASK Model A framework which focuses on attitudes, skills and knowledge as competence to be developed in training. The utility of this model in peace training is embedded in its ability to enable practitioners to look beyond 'knowing what to do' to 'actually putting knowledge into practice'; ultimately helping participants to internalise an attitude and belief-system that promotes equality, human rights and develop skills for effective interventions
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), 'D3.5 Integrated Assessment Report on EU's CPPB Capabilities', Report, p. 14
|Self-paced courses in which the material can be accessed anytime. The assessment method may be through multiple choice questions, drag and drop menus etc. and the certificate can be acquired at any time
|It involve a person's thinking or feeling about a particular issue, formed not only through upbringing and experiences but also the way through which these experiences are processed. Peace training involves instilling attitudes within participants that promote the values of peace. Preparing practitioners for their work involves reinforcing the belief that peace is possible and desirable and that equality, diversity, participation and human rights are the cornerstones for working in CPPB.
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), 'D3.5 Integrated Assessment Report on EU's CPPB Capabilities', Report, p. 15
|A broad understanding of what guides, or should guide a CPPB training programme as a whole. This includes incorporation of novel approaches at an organisational level
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017) D4.1 'Novel Concepts and Training Methods to Foster Peacetraining', Report, p. 11
|It is an educational approach that combines both traditional learning on-site and online digital media and it is applied in the educational environment as well as in training settings. The combination of both approaches can happen in different forms and varies from one educational or training context to another. To be a form of blended learning, participants must at a given point in time in the course meet in a face-to-face setting. The online aspects of the course, can be preparatory to the face-to-face context, or combined in various phases with learning at the same physical location
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2018), 'D4.4 Technology Assessment and Modern E-Approaches', Report, p7
|A group of individuals attempts to come up with as many ideas as possible for a given problem. The discussion can be structured or unstructured. Ideas are spoken out loud and can be put on record or not. It is generally regarded as most effective to keep a log of the ideas. In principle, evaluations of ideas are postponed to later group discussions
|A case study consists of an in-depth analysis of a historical or fictional event. As a scientific method, a case study is used to investigate particular causal mechanisms of interest, and it is typically rich in description and context. As a teaching method, a case study concretizes learning material which might otherwise stay on an abstract or theoretical level. A case study allows training participants to investigate the workings of particular mechanisms in action by referencing real or fictional (but preferably based on real) events
|Certification is a written document given by an accredited institution attesting the credibility, efficiency and value of a product, services or training provided by an individual or organisation. For peace training, certification enhances trust, confidence and credibility of the training provided
|The European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training, CEPOL, is an agency of the EU which develops, implements, and coordinates training of law enforcement officials in Europe. It works together with other EU agencies, international organizations, and national law enforcement training institutions. It has increasingly taken up responsibilities for training in the field of CPPB missions
|Term that covers processes implemented to prepare and support organizational change
|Cloud Resource Planning Systems (CRP)
|CRP can be linked to several concepts such as from immersive learning, serious gaming and virtual worlds to performance-oriented design, organisational, sectoral or field-level knowledge management systems and learning and learning content management systems. The specificity of cloud resource planning systems is that information relevant to mission / CPPB performance is collected, stored, managed, interpreted / made sense of on a dedicated / shared cloud-based information management system to improve mission-performance and identify ‘real world’ / field-based needs, performance contexts and ‘problems’ that need to be addressed. Date gathered from this can then be fed into the development of eLearning (and off-line) training and modules, gaming and virtual world simulations
|Coaching can be described as an approach to improve performance competencies. It represents ‘one-on-one’ processes providing customised, tailored support to improve performance and capabilities of the practitioner
|Collaborative learning approaches principally argue that students learn better when engaging in discussion and working together with other students than when attending teacher-based lectures because it enables them to digest, synthesize and apply the material rather than just absorb it.
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), 'D3.4 Current Training Methods for Peacebuilding and Conflict Prevention', Report, p. 31
|Competences are people’s embedded abilities, which develop over time and are acquired through reflective and self-managed use. They enable a person to act and react in an adequate way, depending on the situation. On the individual level, competences are the basis for defining the outcome of learning processes and teaching
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), 'D3.2 Existing Peacebuilding and Conflict Prevention Curricula', Report, p. 19
|It is a combination of: learning drawn from new experiences in learning and real-life situations; acquisition of knowledge in formal and non-formal settings; application of newly-acquired competences; and reflection about experiences, application and / or acquisition
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), 'D3.4 Current Training Methods for Peacebuilding and Conflict Prevention', Report, p. 53-54
|It is an educational or learning design tool which aims at developing desired skill sets for higher performance
|A Model which combines and develops multifaceted competences related to people’s behaviour in terms of feeling, thinking, communication and action, in other words personnel, specialist, social and methodological competencies
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), 'D3.2 Existing Peacebuilding and Conflict Prevention Curricula', Report, p. 19
|Competency-based learning, a learning relevant to both traditional and the evolving elearning approaches, is driven by the need to develop specific competencies needed by the learner to be able to perform effectively within a given role or environment. In CPPB this would relate to the development – at different levels of specialisation and performance capability – of competencies needed for the effective doing of prevention and peacebuilding
|It is collection of efforts initiated to avoid the eruption of violent conflict, end its escalation and further devastation
|Conflict sensitivity involves respecting and understanding dynamics of a specific conflict enough to minimise any negative impacts of one’s intervention and maximise the positive impacts of an intervention
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), 'D3.5 Integrated Assessment Report on EU's CPPB Capabilities', Report, p. 32
|Specific ideas and subject areas that are presented through a training programme or event
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017) D4.1 'Novel Concepts and Training Methods to Foster Peacetraining', Report, p. 6
|Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
|The European Union's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). It follows strategies of conflict prevention with clear cut instruments, such as (i) mediation and diplomacy through EU Delegations and EU Special Representatives, (ii) conflict risk analysis and an early warning system, (iii) confidence-building & dialogue promotion
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017) ‘D3.1 Baseline Research and Stakeholder Report on Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Training’, Report, p. 5
|Being aware cultural differences, how behaviour is interpreted through different cultural lenses, how culture affects behaviour, and developing strategies to engage positively and effectively in a multicultural environment
|A ‘long list’ of curricula areas and themes relevant to the development of operational competence in CPPB
|The curricula framework provides the overall 'conceptual parameters' of the values, philosophy and principles that should guide CPPB curricula.
|The curricula model is an overview representation of the key aspects of a curricula for a CPPB training programme
|A comprehensive document which outlines the objectives, content, methods and approaches as well as resources required for particular training or education
|Customised Learning Profiles
|Enable learners to introduce their preferences in what type of learning works best for them. This can involve selecting from available learning mediums with learners identifying which approaches and systems work best for them, as well as enabling learners to ‘rate’ different methods, instruments and content
|In 360-degree feedback personnel’s performance can be evaluated and assessed by: the individual her or himself, line managers/supervisors, subordinates, peers and other identified relevant stakeholders. This can be in addition to standardised evaluation and testing methodologies – from on-the-job performance and achievement of KPIs, tasks and responsibilities to testing, performance on simulations and more
|Debriefing may occur after a particular exercise in a training setting. The trainer may facilitate a debriefing exercise to reflect on individual and group participation, the difficulties and challenges of discussion and decision-making, possible problems with adaptation to the designed roles, and how participants have felt during the process. The concept of debriefing is also used for evaluating operational actions in the field and consists of a moment of reflection on what went well or not during an operation, mission, or project.
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), 'D3.4 Current Training Methods for Peacebuilding and Conflict Prevention', Report, p. 40
|An approach to learning and training stemming from the understanding that people have multiple approaches to learning competencies and skills development. This includes the ability to select and customise levels of interactivity, modalities for delivery of content, timing of learning and more
|Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
|A policy taken towards the rehabilitation of ex-combatants in post-conflict societies. The aim is to prevent violence recurrence and by disarming and mobilizing combatants and by providing them with an alternative means of income through vocational education programmes
|Distributed Learning (DL)
|Involves the use of current and emerging tools and technologies to facilitate learning. Examples of distributed learning include Interactive Multimedia Instruction (individualized self-paced instruction), Video Teleconferencing, web-managed instruction, and simulations
|Do No Harm
|The 'Do No Harm' principle derives from Mary B. Anderson's important contribution on the negative side effects of foreign humanitarian assistance in conflict-affected settings. While Anderson's work focused on the humanitarian sector, the principle of Do No Harm can be applied to any intervention in a conflict situation, including development aide, and peacebuilding initiatives themselves. The Do No Harm principle is connected to the concept of conflict sensitivity and entails that no intervention aggravates the conflict, its causes and/or consequences
|Anderson, Mary B. (1999). Do no harm: how aid can support peace-or war. Boulder: Rienner
|Ecological Peace Training
|A novel approach which is characterized by awareness and engagement from the community, a holistic approach to the content and process of training, and practical, applicable learning
|It can refer to distance learning approaches as well as to educational technology used either to facilitate learning on the site such as using multimedia tools and Information and Communication Technology (ICT); complementing on-site-learning with further materials that support learners to digest the lessons learned, develop core competencies, practice or collaborate with fellow learners; or create fully virtual learning environments where the overall learning, training and interaction is carried out online
|Trainer and participants are equals and both are sources of knowledge. Trainer acts more as a facilitator to participants’ learning experience
|Capacity building programme of 12 partners, initiated in 2011, funded by the European Commission. Focuses on the preparation and training of civilians that are either going to, or already working in, crisis management missions worldwide, such as of the EU, AU, UN and OSCE
|Central training organiser and provider for the EU, responsible for implementing the CSDP training policy. The ESDC is a network college, which liaises with ministries of defence, national military academies and other bodies of the 28 EU Member States in order to harmonise training cultures
|Employability assets is a culmination of relevant capabilities or competencies essential in ensuring high performance of personnel. It helps in identifying high quality skills set or knowledge that are useful in the effective delivery of services and training. With the ever expanding community of practice, this concept is equally useful in the field of CPPB, as it enables trainers, organisations and practitioners identify training needs as well as the requisite competencies necessary for improving personnel/practitioners capacities and performance
|Experiential Learning (EL)
|Experiential Learning (EL) approaches to training are those in which participants learn by doing. Experiential learning immerses participants in an experience. Learning occurs through the combination of doing and experiencing, and reflecting on the experience.
|Facilitators are individuals who create the space and processes to enable sharing, participant engagement, reflection and development of attitudes, skills and knowledge which support participants’ capacity development and engagement in the field
|Virtual simulation/gaming is an experiential method of teaching. Virtual simulations replicate real-world conditions while allowing the participant to practice skills in a safe environment. The method enables trainers to immerse participants in a scenario they may encounter during deployment. They can practice their response and experience the effects of their response within the simulation. Virtual simulation/gaming is participant-centred method and aims at developing skills rather than knowledge
|Gender mainstreaming entails that gender perspectives are taken into account when introducing any kind of intervention, project or programme. The prior analysis, monitoring, and evaluation of a specific action must take gender dynamics into account and make these explicit. The goal is to identify, at the beginning of any programme, the impact of gender on the various aspect of the programme to ensure the integration of gender dimensions. In training, gender mainstreaming implies attention for gender perspectives in the training content, but also in the training dynamics itself (e.g. by inviting male as well as female lecturers)
|Reimann, C. (2016), ‘Trainer Manual: Mainstreaming Gender into Peacebuilding Trainings’, p. 5
|Gender sensitivity is about being aware of the history of gender inequalities and the impact of those inequalities today
|Involves participants working together in small clusters in order to achieve a learning objective.
|Exercises, activities and games often used as a means to help training participants get to know each other, or to re-energise a group in a training programme
|Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools
|Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools include knowledge platforms, blogs, wikis, social media channels, virtual games and simulations etc.
|A computer-based interactive simulations and game based learning application which enable one or multiple participants to work together to solve a problem, rehearse techniques or enhance their skills. Serious games and Virtual worlds are current examples of immersive training
|Where participants have to participate in two tests, one before, and one after a training course. The focus of the test is not on the individual performance of the respective trainee, but rather on the understanding of the amount of acquired learning.
|Becoming aware of (possible) alternative language and concepts to describe conflict prevention and and peacebuilding; adopting to such cultural and language specificities
|Joint Training Curricula
|Joint training curricula are designed to meet the needs of participants with varying organizational and/or sectorial backgrounds in the CPPB field. By training together both sectors gain deeper insights into each other's working procedures and principles, as well as what they can mean for each other. Joint training curricula are, for example, used to enhance civil-military coordination
|An information a person acquires through personal experiences or training. In training, several different types of knowledge can be acquired. In addition to learning terms, definitions and details within factual knowledge, a training may catalyse participants to explore theories, devise strategies, understand local contexts and develop an understanding of self.
|It involves an effective means of securing institutional or organisational knowledge resources and assets
|An evaluation system of short- and long-term training results. The model includes four levels of evaluation, which build upon each other: Level 1 is Reaction; Level 2, Learning; Level 3, Behaviour; Level 4, Results
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017) ‘D3.1 Baseline Research and Stakeholder Report on Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Training’, Report, p. 51
|Different types of learner. For example some people learn through sharing ideas, while others learn through doing or through observing others
|Learning Content Management Systems
|Refers to dedicated knowledge management and learning systems for a specific organisation / agency, sector (e.g. early warning, crisis management, gender and peacebuilding), mission or ‘whole-of-the-field’ in a specific conflict/CPPB context (including the spectrum of missions and organisations engaging in that context). This would involve identification of the key ‘content’ relevant for knowing-learning-retaining-defusing and the systems for knowledge management and learning
|Levels of Interactivity
|Related to how eLearning platforms and modules / trainings are planned, and involves five levels namely;
|Local ownership means that the local country partners are in the driving seat for any intervention, programme, or project undertaken by international partners. Sometimes the concept of national ownership is used to stress the sovereignty of the national government in the process. Ownership entails that the intervention is requested by the local partner, fits into the partner’s own security and development plans, and is monitored and evaluated accordingly. Ensuring the principle of local ownership is upheld is a major challenge in the CPPB field, however.
|Massive open online courses (MOOCs)
|An example of a course that is fully conducted online. Educational materials in MOOCs may include texts, infographics, publications links, video lectures, assessment methods in the form of quizzes but also in open questions and online collaborations spaces such as discussion boards where course participants can interact with each other and with the course facilitators
|Emerging tool that is set to enable practitioners deal with psychological and emotional stress through a mentalising strategy or process where they are able to analyse situations and find strength within themselves to address internal and external threats.
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017) D4.1 ‘Novel Concepts and Training Methods to Foster Peacetraining’, Report, p. 38
|Where an individual is ‘mentored’ by (normally) an older and wiser colleague who passes on knowledge and experience. The mentor is not directly responsible for the performance of the individual (e.g. a line manager)
|Ways in which knowledge, skills, and attitudes are developed within a training context
|A system of principles and approaches for a specific task, including for training, teaching and research
|Method Effectiveness involves identifying the utility of a particular method to the learning needs or the required skills of participants
|Mission-induction training occurs predominantly in the context of international missions and operations by organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the North-Atlantic Treaty organization (NATO)
|Mobile learning is the use of computing devises (ipads, tablets, laptops, smart phones etc.) to facilitate training or learning in areas where participants lack access to traditional training rooms and facilities. M-learning can provide quick guides, toolkits, interactive learning media such as video tutorials and pre-packaged coaching, case reports and lessons learned, exercises and templates for improving task implementation and much more.
|A moderator in a debate is responsible for facilitating the conversation by summarizing statements, ask follow-up questions etc. The moderator is also responsible for ensuring the debate does not escalate and the tone of language remains respectable. Moderators in an online community (e.g. Facebook group) largely have the same tasks. While ensuring that language and tone remain polite, moderators also have the important task of making sure the liveliness of the debate and the community does not die out by following up on posts, questions, and by asking questions to others. Online course facilitators take up the role of a moderator to support collaborative learning online.
|Monitoring, Mentoring, Advising (and Training) are specific tasks of international partners in interventions in third countries. These tasks are often undertaken in an SSR mission.Monitoring is a broad term describing the active collection, verification and immediate use of information to address particular challenges; Mentoring entails the sharing of experiences between an international and local partner, with the former taking on a personal, supportive role. Advising also entails the sharing of experiences and proposing possible solutions, but usually takes place on a non-personal basis, focusing on the institutional level and (hierarchical) structures. Training is a separate task and entails that the international partner takes up an educational role towards a group of locals.
|Multi-stakeholder training can be differentiated from single-stakeholder training. With single stakeholder training, participants stem from the same organization or by extension the same sector. In multi-stakeholder training, participants from various organizational and sectorial backgrounds are brought together to a training to reflect operational realities in the field in which ‘joint programming’ and better coordination and cooperation by different actors in the field is increasingly required.
|An idea not yet ‘mainstreamed’ in CPPB training but which may offer significant value or relevance to developing the field of CPPB training
|An online facilitator performs the tasks of a trainer and facilitator in an online course. Facilitating debates and collaborative learning online requires an adapted skill set, however, in which the facilitator often takes up the role of an online moderator.
|Organizational learning and knowledge management in the context of e-concepts and CPPB training addresses the need for course and learning platform designers to focus also on organizational systems, structures, policies and institutional forms of learning and memory
|Desired training effectiveness outcomes typically involve knowledge acquisition and retention (commonly referred to as learning), and transfer of knowledge/skills learned during training to performance in an operational environment.
|The process of promoting knowledge, skills and attitudinal change through the transfer of values and principles essential for building peace and resolving conflict in the field of practice.
|Peace Operations Training Institute (POTI)
|The Peace Operations Training Institute is a public charity separate from the UN. It delivers a broad range of e-learning courses in compliance with UN standards on topics including peace support, humanitarian relief, and security operations
|Peace Training Architecture
|Peace training architecture is the guiding structure of the curricula framework and curriculum model, and led by three identified target groups:
|A long-term process aiming to reduce the risk of lapse and relapse into armed conflict by creating the necessary conditions for sustainable peace within state and society
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), ‘D3.5 Integrated Assessment Report on EU’s CPPB Capabilities’, Report, p. 9, UN SG Policy Committee, 2007 in UN PBSO, 2017
|The method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept.
|Refers to aligning the individual’s eLearning experience (and results) with organizational performance and learning needs, connecting learning and work performance, and connecting organizational and work performance with measurable impact objectives for contributing to and achieving change in the conflict context. This concept is relevant and connected to those of work-placed learning, activity systems and competency-based learning identified above, linking them directly to the need to achieve performance targets (impact) in actual CPPB in the conflict context
|Pre-Deployment Training (PDT)
|Pre-Deployment Training (PDT) refers to generic, specialized and, where appropriate, mission-specific training that takes place prior to deployment
|The trainer acts as the expert and (sole) source of knowledge. Under prescriptive approaches:
|Quality Assurance Systems
|A set of policies, procedures, rules, criteria, tools, verification instruments, and evaluation mechanisms which has the purpose of ensuring the quality of any training provider, and enhancing the credibility and recognition of the institution through the maintenance of a minimum standard of quality
|Reflection helps to consolidate learning, as it helps participants think about how a training activity may apply to their own lives and work. Reflection can be especially beneficial in transforming attitudes, as it can generate self-awareness and raise consciousness. Reflection can occur in large or small groups, in pairs, or individually. Usually, participants are prompted by a series of open-ended questions designed to stimulate thinking
|Role Plays or Role-playing Games are an experiential and participant-centred method of training, in which participants assume different characters from a given or created scenario and engage in exchanges where they continue to play the respective role
|A sandbox game is known as an open-world game, which has not predefined stages and play through. An integral part of the sandbox is complete freedom of action within a defined system. The sense of the game is not to complete a goal but to ideate and create something from scratch
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017) D4.1 ‘Novel Concepts and Training Methods to Foster Peacetraining’, Report, p. 50
|Security Sector Reform (SSR)
|Transforming the security sector, which includes all the actors, their roles, responsibilities and actions, so that they work together to manage and operate the system in a manner that is more consistent with democratic norms and sound principles of good governance, and thus contributes to a well-functioning security framework (OECD DAC)
|A sequential approach to training, also often referred to as a phased, progressive or layered approach, refers to a systems approach to training in which different competencies and/or different levels of competencies are trained in different programmes
|Serous games are designed to engage participants with ‘real world’ situations and experiences using game-play to educate and develop understanding and capabilities. They allow preparation for in-the-field CPPB experiences and development of performance capabilities with opportunities to retry, re-learn, advance, adapt and improve, and text current-level understanding, knowledge and capabilities while facilitating learning evolution
|Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)
|Refers to courses or course components developed according to agreed/standardised specifications to enable course content and materials to be shared across trainings and providers. Once SCORM-specifications are adopted and adhered to, there can be interchange of lessons, learning materials and curricula content across providers. This tool could be useful in the CPPB training field for the sharing of learning materials and resources across providers and courses with high-quality materials developed which can be adapted, customised, integrated and re-configured for need and context
|Simulation is an experiential method of teaching. The method enables trainers to immerse participants in a particular scenario they may encounter during deployment. They can practice their response to a situation and experience the effects of their response within the simulation
|Skills help put our knowledge and beliefs into action. Peace training focuses on developing techniques of conflict analysis, prevention and peacebuilding and applying these skills in a variety of social contexts. This involves teaching how to do something, for example, how to create trust or how to facilitate dialogue between conflicting parties. A skills training should focus both on the technique and the way that technique is applied to a particular context
|Instructor-paced courses have a definite starting and ending date and are facilitated by an instructor who takes the audience through all lessons in a linear way. The assessment methods can be a combination of multiple choice questions and open parts (essays) which are evaluated by the instructor at the end of the term. Participants are required to be online and follow the course at the same time
|Subject Matter Experts
|Subject Matter Experts are often external to the organisation which is organising the training, but are specialists in their field
|A concept more and more widely embraced in both on- and off-line education and training. The flexibility and adaptability of tools and new possibilities available with advancements in eLearning increases our capacity to develop robust bespoke learning. In student-centric learning the learner is able to significantly influence the content, activities, materials and approach to learning and capacity development, and the pacing of their approach
|Systems Approach to Training (SAT)
|SAT provides an integrated approach to instructional strategies and learning technologies intended to aid in the transfer of learning – of knowledge, skills and attitudes – to implementation and performance in the real world. The mode includes 5 ‘phases’: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (ADDIE). The phases are intended to bring about continual evaluation and feed-back to ensure the suitability of eLearning for the field, and integration of the needs of the field into eLearning
|Task factors include characteristics such as task/skill type and task difficulty. Task/skill type characterizes tasks by the types of knowledge and skills (e.g., psychomotor skills) required for effective performance
|Taxonomy of learning
|A frequently used classification to understand learning, related to knowledge and cognitive processes, is the taxonomy of educational objectives, also referred to as Bloom’s taxonomy of learning
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), ‘D3.2 Existing Peacebuilding and Conflict Prevention Curricula’, Report, p. 15
|Part of Arts Based Approaches where theatre techniques are also extensively used in exercises that build trust, explore and strengthen empathy and explore comfort zones. These elements are seen as part and parcel of the methodology of any CPPB course as they are fundamentals for a deep understanding of the self when engaging in conflict and peacebuilding training and preparation
|The exact roles of course organisers and trainers can vary from organisation to organisation. Generally, course organisers and trainers design, coordinate and implement trainings. Course organisers and trainers may include personnel from military training organisations, departments within the EU or UN, local or international NGOs or academia. Course organisers may handle financials, hire trainers, publicise materials on training, recruit and select participants, and obtain accreditation. The trainer may design the learning objectives, curricula, methods of delivery, the agenda, assessment criteria and evaluations. In some cases, the organisation design and coordinate and trainers will only be hired to conduct the training. In other cases, trainers play an active role in the entire process
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), ‘D3.5 Integrated Assessment Report on EU’s CPPB Capabilities’, Report, p. 20
|Formal and non-formal processes of creating capacities and competencies in a certain field
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), ‘D3.5 Integrated Assessment Report on EU’s CPPB Capabilities’, Report, p. 14
|Training design involves the process of identifying an appropriate and required training tools, approaches and methods necessary for the transfer of knowledge and skills in order to achieve efficient and high performance. A comprehensive training design is one that takes into consideration existing gaps and needed skills as well as incorporates the ideas and expertise of all relevant stakeholders
|It involve the combination of different activities necessary for the successful implementation of a training programme. This process includes but not limited to planning, implementation, standardisation and evaluation
|These are tools or resources required for the execution of a training course
|Training Needs Assessment
|In needs assessment, trainers or course organizers systematically identify priorities, explicitly expressed by deployment agencies, practitioners, organisations in the field, as well as implicit needs, which may derive from the CPPB working context or participant background, and decide upon the curricula components
|PeaceTraining.Eu (2017), ‘D3.5 Integrated Assessment Report on EU’s CPPB Capabilities’, Report, p. 24
|It is a framework outlining the content, approaches and information of a particular training course
|It is a process of ensuring that the content, approaches and methods of training meet commonly agreed requirements and standards
|An e-learning tool which refers to learning and training models in which learners collaborate in the creation of knowledge and content or interact in problem solving or task implementation, engaging with (transmedia) multiple social and multimedia technologies and platforms including (for example) chat rooms, discussion forums, webinars or webcasts, wiki and more
|This involves all stakeholders, trainers and course organizers, are aware of symptoms of trauma, how to avoid re-traumatising an individual, and how to respond to a person whose traumatic experience has been triggered
|The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) is an autonomous UN body established in 1963. It is responsible for training design and delivery especially aimed towards the developing world. UNITAR covers various areas in training, including peace and conflict. It offers a number of online courses and also delivers training on demand
|United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (S/RES/1325), on women, peace, and security
|United Nations Security Council Resolution 2250 (S/RES/2250), on youth, peace and security
|UN Security Council Resolution 2151 titled 'The maintenance of international peace and security: Security sector reform: challenges and opportunities' gives international recognition of Security Sector Reform in the CPPB toolbox. It also stresses key SSR principles, including for instance the principle of local ownership
|A virtual classroom replicates a classroom setting in a virtual reality. Trainers and training participants or students create avatars (virtual personae) of themselves and participate in the virtual classroom which can be build to look like an actual classroom (e.g. via the Second Life platform). A virtual classroom requires participants to be online at the same time (synchronous e-learning). A virtual classroom allows for collaborative learning techniques including class debates and group work
|An emerging e-learning technique which covers a range of technologies from the creation of online ‘model’ worlds and contexts in which participants can ‘engage’ using immersive technologies or avatars used as graphical representations of people. It enable learners to ‘experience’ situations they will face in the field and exercise, test and develop skills as well as improve their capabilities to interact across stakeholder groups and improve core ‘employability’ or CPPB-assets. It can also useful to facilitate community of practice
|Work-place learning emphasises aligning individual and organisational learning needs to enable interlinkages between learning and work efficiency. While this concept is popular in the business sector, it is still relatively new in CPPB; thus requiring the need for further engagement in this field